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157 terms

Prentice Hall Math course 2

STUDY
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absolute value
the xxx of a number is its distance from 0 on a number line.
compatible numbers
are numbers that are easy to compute mentally. You can use xxxxxx to estimate.
integers
are the set of positive whole numbers, their opposites, and zero
mean
the xxx of a set of data is the sum of the data divided by the number of data items
median
the middle value when the data is arranged in numerical order
mode
the item that occurs with the greatest frequency (may have more than one xxxx, or no xxxx)
opposites
two numbers that are the same distance from 0 on a number line, but in opposite directions
order of operations
1.work inside grouping symbols2.multiply and divide from left to right3.add and subtract from left to right
outlier
is the data item that is much higher or much lower than the other items in the set
range
the difference between the greatest and the least values
additive inverse
two numbers with a sum of 0 (8,-8)
algebraic expression
mathematical phrase with at least one variable
equation
mathematical sentence with an equal sign
open sentence
an equation with one or more variables (p + 12 = 34)
inequality
a mathematical sentence that contains < > <_ <_ or not equal is an inequality
inverse operations
operations that undo each other
solution of an equation
is a value for a variable that makes an equation true
solution of an inequality
is any value that makes the inequality true. Can include many numbers.
variable
a symbol that represents one or more numbers.
composite number
a whole number greater than 1 that has more than two factors
divisible
one whole number is xxxx by a second whole number if the remainder is 0 when you divide the 1st number by the 2nd
equivalent fractions
fractions that name the same amount are xxxx (3/4, 6/8, 9/12)
exponent
tells how many times a number, or base, is used as a factor
greatest common factor
of two or more numbers is the greatest number that is a factor of all the numbers
improper fraction
has a numerator that is greater than or equal to its denominator (5/2,12/12, 8/3)
least common denominator
of two or more fractions is the least common multiple of their denominators
least common multiple
of two or more numbers is the least multiple that is common to all the numbers (lcm of 3 and 4 is 12)
mixed number
sum of a whole number and a fraction
prime number
a whole number with exactly two factors, 1 and the number itself. the number 1 is neither prime or composite
rational number
a number that can be written as a quotient of two integers, where the divisor is not 0. 2/5, -6, 3 1/2,
repeating decimal
if the same block of digits in a decimal repeats without end, the decimal is a xxx
terminating decimal
a decimal that stops, or terminates is a xxxx
benchmark
a xxxx is a convenient number used to replace fractions that are less than 1. 7/8 ---> 1, 4/9--->1/2
precision
the xxxx of a measurement refers to its degree of exactness. The marks on a scale or other intrument tell you the xxxx that is possible
reciprocal
two numbers are xxxx if their product is 1. To divide by a fraction, multiply by its XXXX
cross products
for two ratios, the xxxxx are found by multiplying the denominator of one ratio by the numerator of the other ratio
equal ratios
two ratios that name the same number are xxxx.18:30 and 9:15 are XXX
indirect measurement
you can use XXX to measure distances that are difficult to measure directly. Use proportions and similar triangles
polygon
a closed plane figure formed by three or more line segments that do not cross
proportion
a XXX is an equation stating that two ratios are equal, 6/8 = 9/12
rate
a XXX is a ratio that compares two quantities measured in different units ( 233words/2minutes)
scale drawing
a XXX is an enlarged or reduced drawing of an object that is similar to the actual object
similar polygons
2 polygons are XXX if 1)corresponding angles have the same measure, and 2)the lengths of corresponding sides form equal ratios
ratio
a comparison of two quantities by division, 5 to 24, 5:24, 5/24
scale
ratio that compares a length in a drawing to the corresponding length in the actual object
unit price
a unit rate that gives the cost per unit is a XXXX
unit rate
the rate for one unit of a given quantity is the XXX
commission
commission = commission rate X sales
discount
difference between the orig. price and the sale price
markup
the difference between the selling price and the orig. cost, or the store's cost, of an item is called the XXX
percent
a XXX is a ratio that compares a number to 100. 25/100 is 25%
percent of change
the XXX is the percent a quantity increases or decreases from its original amount. amount of change/original amount = percent of change/100
acute angle
angle between 0 and 90
adjacent angle
share a vertex and a side but have no interior points in common
angle bisector
a ray that divides an angle into two congruent angles
central angle
an angle with its vertex at the center of a circle
equilateral triangle
triangle with three congruent sides
isosceles triangle
tri with at least 2 congruent sides
obtuse angle
between 90 and 180
polygon
a closed plane figure with sides formed by three or more line segments. the sides only meet at their endpoints
regular polygon
a polygon with all sides congruent and all angles congruent
right angle
90 angle
scalene triangle
no congruent sides
skew lines
lines that lie in different planes. they are neither parallel nor intersecting
straight angle
180
vertical angles
formed by two intersecting lines and are opposite each other. xxx angles have equal measures.
area
the XX of a figure is the number of square units a figure encloses
circumference
is the distance around a circle
cylinder
has two congruent parallel bases that are circles. the height of a xxx is the length of a perpendicular segment that joins the bases
hypotenuse
in a right triangle, the two shortest sides are legs. the side oppposite the 90 angle is the hypotenuse
irrational number
a number that cannot be written as a ratio of two integers. As decimals, xxx numbers neither terminate or repeat
net
a two-dimensional pattern that you can fold to from a 3-dim. figure
prism
a 3-dim figure with 2 parallel and congruent polygonal faces, called bases. the other faces are rectangles.
pythagorean theorem
in any right triangle, the sum of the squares of the lengths of the legs is equal to the square of the length of the hypotenuse
square root
inverse of squaring a number is finding the XXX
surface area
XX of a prism is the sum of the areas of its faces - square units
volume
xx of a 3 dim. figure is the number of cubic units needed to fill the space inside the figure
deca
ten
hexa
6
octa
8
penta
5
quadr
4
tri
3
cube
rectangular prism with faces that are squares
cone
one circular base, and one vertex
pyramid
3 dim. figure with triangular faces that meet at one point,vertex, and a base that is a polygon. named for the shape of the base
sphere
set of all points in space that are the same distance from a center point
rhombus
parallelogram with 4 congruent sides
square
parallelogram with 4 right angles and 4 congruent sides
rectangle
parallelogram with 4 right angles
parallelogram
quadrilateral with both pairs of opposite sides parallel 3 special types:rectangle,rhombus,square
trapezoid
quadrilateral with exactly one pair of parallel sides
dodecagon
12
nonagon
9
heptagon
7
acute triangle
triangle with 3 acute angles
obtuse triangle
triangle with 1 obtuse angle
vertical angle
X top and bottom angles are vertical and are congruent
diagonal
line segment that connects two non-adjacent vertices
segment
part of a line with 2 endpoints and all points in between
angle
formed by two rays with a common endpoint
arc
is a part of a circle
base
when a number is written in exponential form, the number that is used as a factor is the base.
bases
parallel and congruent polygonal faces
bisect
to divide an angle into two congruent angles
central angle
an angle with its vertex at the center of a circle
chord
a segment that has both endpoints on a circle
circle
set of points in a plane that are all the same distance from a given point called the center
complementary angles
the sum of the measures of two angles is 90
compass
geometric tool used to draw circles and arcs
congruent
have the same length
congruent angles
angles with equal measure
congruent polygons
polygons with the same size and shape
cubic unit
is a cube with edges one unit long
degree
the measures of an angle
diameter
a segment that passes through the center of a circle and has both endpoints on the circle
edge
each segment formed by the intersection of two faces
exterior angle
angle formed by intersecting lines outside of the polygon
face
a flat surface shaped like a polygon
height
the perpendicular distance from a base to another
intersecting lines
have exactly one point in common
irregular polygon
sides that are not all congruent and/or angles that are not all congruent
legs
the 2 sides of a right triangle that form the right angle
line
a series of points that extend in two opposite directions without end. You name a line by any two points on the line or a lowercase letter.
line of symmetry
when one side is the mirror image of the other side
midpoint
a segment is the point that divides the segment into two segments of equal length
net
a net is a two dimensional pattern that can be folded to form a three-dim. figure
parallel lines
lines in the same plane that never intersect
perfect square
a number that is the square of an integer
perpendicular lines
intersect to form right angles
perpendicular bisector
perpendicular to a segment
pi
is the ratio of a circle's circumference C to its diameter d. (3.14 or 22/7 or )
plane
a flat surface that extends indefinitely in all directions and has no thickness
point
indicates location. a XXX has no size. you name a XXX by a capital letter
quadrilateral
polygon with 4 sides
radical sign
indicates the nonnegative square root of a number
radius
a segment that connects the center of a circle to the circle
ray
is part of a line with one endpoint and all the points of the line on one side of the endpoint. you name a ray using two points, starting with the endpoint
rectangle
parallelogram with right angles
rectangular prism
prism with rectangular base
rhombus
parallelogram with 4 congruent sides
segment bisector
is a line, segment, or ray that goes through the midpoint of a segment
semicircle
an arc that is half of the circumference of a circle
square
to multiply a number by itself
square root
the inverse of squaring a number
supplementary angles
the sum is 180
three-dim. figure
solid, a figure that does not lie in a plane
trapezoid
quadrilateral with exactly one pair of parallel sides
triangle
polygon with 3 sides
undecagon
11
vertex
point of intersection of two sides of an angle or figure
vertical angles
are formed by two intersecting lines and are opposite each other
area rectangle
LW
area parallelogram
bh
area triangle
1/2bh
C equation
pi d or 2 pi r
area of circle
pi r squared