Honors World Geography Introduction Terms
Terms in this set (75)
The position or place of a certain item on the surface of the Earth expressed in degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude and longitude.
Globalization: Winners and Losers
Win: Expand international capitalism, standardize practices, and shrink the development gap. Main idea: Promoting jobs and cultural exchange.
Lose: Uneven development persists, increasing inequality at all scales and unfair competition. Main idea: not supported by people in both the periphery and the core.
Believe there are growing development gaps and impending global destabilization.
Believe we to Give globalization time to spread its advantages to all.
Reality of present
The world is distinct, and some contrasts have been amplified.
The making of maps. Today the best way to make maps is through our technology because it is the most accurate. For example:
- Remote sensing: Scanners and cameras on satellites send information to computers on Earth.
Limitations of our technology: makes the Earth distorted since the point of view is from the ground/space.
The most accurate way to represent the world is the globe because it isn't distorted. It's 3D and round.
Overall, maps are constantly changing and improving as technology advances. The main device that has revolutionized maps are satellites.
Challenge From Below
The notion of a modern state is challenged "from below" by ethnic minorities.
The geographic study of climates. Includes not only the classification of climates and analysis of their regional distribution, but also broader environmental questions that concern climate change, interrelationships with soil and vegetation, and human-climate interaction.
A formal region characterized by the uniformity of the climate type within it.
A: equatorial/tropical (region has high temps and high precipitation)
B: dry (region has low precipitation with varying temps)
C: temperate (midlatitudes have no temp extremes or severity)
D: cold (Mostly continental with large temperature extremes)
E: Polar (Temperature ranges are due to high latitudes or elevations
H: highland (same as polar)
The best climate type on Earth is CsB. (temperate, dry and cool summer.) (costal)
Middle of country
The slow movement of continents controlled by the processes associated with plate tectonics.
places of dominance that exerted power over surrounding, near and far.
the contrasting spatial characteristics of, and linkages between, the have (core) and have-not (periphery) components of a national, regional, or the global system.
Core areas of the world
western Europe, America, Canada, Japan, Australia,New Zealand, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, Greenland, South Korea, and some of the (oil-) rich Gulf States have become part of the core as well. And as the 21st century opened, Pacific-fronting China stepped forward. The global core, therefore, continues to evolve.
The global core, therefore, continues to evolve. All countries contain core areas, except for a few special cases. These national cores are often anchored by the country's capital and/or largest city. Larger countries may have more than one core area, such as Australia with its eastern and western coast cores.
Paris (France), Tokyo (Japan), Buenos Aires (Argentina), and Bangkok (Thailand).
Where natural geographic boundaries isolate, prevent interaction. It also means in a population, the culture (race, ethnicities, etc) in one's geography region is different. Could be different by not modernized technology.
The study of human populations, including birth rates, death rates, growth patterns, longevity, migration, and related characteristics.
The field of geography that focuses on the diverse ways in which people earn a living and on how the goods and services they produce are expressed and organized spatially.
The environment (weather, demographics, change of time) affecting people's lifestyle and interaction.
European state model
A state consisting of a legally defined territory inhabited by a population governed from a capital city by a representative government.
external political dynamic
extinction of languages
The number of lost languages is in the tens of thousands-a process that continues today. One year from today, about 25 more languages will become extinct, leaving no trace. Just in North America, more than 100 native languages were lost during the past half-century. 6800 languages remain, half of them classified as endangered. By the end of this century, the bulk of world's population will be speaking just a few hundred languages.
first modern state
a type of region marked by a certain degree of homogeneity in one or more phenomena; also called uniform region or homogeneous region.
A region marked less by its sameness than by its dynamic internal structure; because it usually fouces on a central node, also called nodal region or focal region. (a structured, urban-centered system of interaction)
Geography is study of
where and how human and natural feature and events (political, economic, cultural, and environmental) are distributed on Earth's surface,
the relationships among them,
how their distributions change over time,
and how those features and relationships affect human lives.
Programs allow (((((presentation and analysis of spatial data)))). Because of our technology is allows geographers to develop geographic information system, bringing info to a monitor's screen that would have taken months to assemble just a few decades ago.
global climate change
Includes natural and human made changes associated with warming or cooling. No natural inputs have increased carbon emission. It's humans that are producing so much CO2. The Earth's climate is warming. the amount of human lives will lower due to acceleration of warmth.
A geographic process in which economic, cultural, and political relations shift to ever-broader scales.
the world has literally shrunk due to communication and transportation technologies. Everyone is connected, except for a few areas who refuse to be apart of the modern world.
A system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers. (GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM) (check)
Leads to climate shifts. Sun's radiation becomes trapped in the Earth's atmosphere. Effects: precipitation patterns. agriculture zones, and human quality of life. 200 years ago, Iowa was prairie, we destroyed the eco-system.
growth of languages
Some languages such as English (business language) and Mandarin (population). It also involves how languages branch off one another and no matter how similar they are they can't talk to one another. Ex: the two types of Chinese. Similar, yes, but can they actually communicate? No.
Core, as center of activity with a surrounding zone of interaction.
Environments and humans constantly affect one another. Though society affects the environment more by damaging it through pollution, fires, and simply living on it. The environment gives humans advantages by giving it resources such as water and food, which can affect people's wealth by the amount they have of it. Humans will always be apart of nature, humans will always be changing the environment, and humans will always be dependent of it.
Index of regional disparity
The disparity between the standards of living applying within a nation.
influence of rivers on settlement
Makes the settlement successful. All early settlements were by a water source because it is necessary if the settlers want to thrive. It's water supply not just humans, but for farming too. Rivers can also cause fertile soil, which also helps farming. Today the industry uses it for other things besides farming and fresh water supply. We also use it for cooling and washing machines. It can also attract tourism. Supply for food (fish) and water. We use it for hydroelectric power (cheaper and better source of electricity). Use the river as transportation. Negatives (floods): loss of lives, property, fish supply, farm land, and soil fertility. Can store water, for future use.
RIVERS ARE IMPORTANT SOURCES OF WATER FOR HOUSEHOLDS, INDUSTRY AND AGRICULTURE. IT PROVIDE US WITH FOOD, ENERGY, TRANSPORTATION ROUTES, AND WATER FOR IRRIGATION AND FOR DRINKING.
Warm phases with glacial receding.
A common 2nd language used in government, commerce, or higher education. !!!English primacy a result of colonization and globalization!!!
longitude and latitude
longitude runs north and south between poles. latitude runs parallel to the equator
geographic grid system
Help determine a exact location
major world population
India: 1.3+ billion
China: 1.3 billion
350,000 people born each day.
South Asia • Centered on India, including Pakistan and Bangladesh • World's largest cluster made up mostly of farmers
B & C: East Asia • Centered on China, including coastal zone • Rapid change from rural-to-urban life and development
• European continent, including Western Russia • Among the world's most urbanized and industrialized realms
percentage of people living in cities and towns
Population trends, Fertility rates, urbanization rates, population density etc.
Map scales are important because it helps you understand the map and its purpose more. Maps display large amounts of information, suggest relationships, answer questions, and lay out spatial problems researchers investigate. Scales are also useful to organize and display information on maps. Many maps differ because of the layout and purpose.
Main idea: the smaller the scale the more detailed it is.
The study of health and disease within a geographic context and from a spatial perspective. Among other things, it examines the sources, diffusion routes, and distributions of diseases.
a very large, heavily populated city or urban complex. FANCY WAY: one of the large coalescing supercities forming in diverse parts of the world.
Maps in out minds of our activity spaces. It is a general layout of places and help us navigate through them. Over the years our mental maps will expand as we gain more knowledge of other areas.
Realms are dominated by a single major political entity, by either its territorial or population size. Ex: North America (United States). Keep in mind countries can be dominated by military force.
Influence human activity and movement. Each geographic realm has its distinctive combination of natural landscapes. If someone has enough money there are no natural boundaries for communication and travel.
A nation is where everyone is the same ethnicity. A state is a country (when s is capitalized). Size is not important. A nation state is a sovereign state whose citizens or subjects are relatively homogeneous in factors such as language or common descent.
nature of geographic realms
Physical and human: define broad areas
ex: South Asia
Functional: interaction of human societies and the natural environment
Historical: above criteria interrelated over time
created through one-sided interactions to sustain the core.
Lighter rock continents floats atop heavier rock plates that move by magma circulation cells within the Earth. New earth forming all the time, and old earth eroding. The Earth will look different in the future because in nature nothing stays the same.
Appearance, functioning, and organization are dispersed among equally influential regions or countries. ex: Europe. A union of countries in a realm that are all powerful and have authority.
The study of the interaction of geographic space and political process.
Shapes world-scale geographic regions.
Global boundary framework also changes.
Number of individuals per unit area. People, demographics in a region, in a country. (1 culture and race)
population growth rate
around two percent each year.
region vs. realm
Realm: Global neighborhoods with combinations of environmental, cultural, and organizational properties (which are imprinted on the landscape). A realm is actually the largest geographic unit into which the world can be divided.
Region: Regions are defined as smaller areas within the realm that have similar characteristics in their physical landscapes, climates, people, histories, culture, political structure and governments.
main idea: Realms are broader, and regions are narrower.
Criteria for region
• Human (cultural), physical (natural), or both
• Formal regions
5. Regions as Systems marked by functional integration:
• Spatial Systems
• Functional region
Referenced against other regions.
notion that the government of a state rules supreme within its boundaries.
Main idea: The geographic dimension or expression of any phenomenon; more specifically related to the organization of space on Earth's surface. Way of identifying, explaining, predicting, and understanding the human and physical patterns in space and the interconnections of various spaces. It has defined geography from its beginning. Overall, it is geography's consideration that spatial patterns are crucial to how we live and organize our societies.
Places that have similarities with two realms. Where 2 geographic realms meet are not sharp boundaries. Represent ever changing zones of regional interaction and change. Reality of contested, shifting boundaries, and changing geographic fortunes in the world. Things that don't change are like rivers and mountains.
Migration across nations. It has increased.
weather vs. climate
weather: immediate state of the atmosphere. what happens now.
climate: aggregate, total record of weather conditions at a place or region over time. Overall weather.
Wegener believe that there was once a single supercontinent, which he called Pangaea. He said that Pangea broke apart millions of years ago when still-ongoing plate divergence and continental drift became dominant processes.
World Bank State Ranking
Based on economic success and income. (USA is a high income country) (map on powerpoint)
Necessary knowledge of location and distribution of significant features of Earth's surface: both human and natural worlds and need to have a historical perspective of how things have changed, and how exactly life was back then to understand life today.
nature's sharp divisions or using specific criteria to divide. A lot of natural boundaries separate realms. Going to have to redraw boundaries in the future.
Pacific Ring of Fire
Zone of crustal instability along plate boundaries ringing the Pacific Ocean Basin.
Geographic Realms (what are the realms?)
Europe, Russia, North America, Middle America, South America, Subsaharan Africa, North Africa/Southwest Asia, South Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Austral Realm, Pacific Realm.
Growth of Languages (Part 2)
Alterations of language and unique dialects such as the English in America and English in Britain.
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