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evergreen, pyramidal with whorled branching pattern
Leaves flat and blunt or divided at tips
Female cones are born upright
some native to western North America where they live 1000+ years, grows best in cooler, moist climates but often adaptable to Midwest
Branches usually flattened, frond -like: leaves opposite, scale-like
single species to have originated 50 million years ago
Twigs, needles and cone scales appear in opposite pairs
deciduous with linear, feathery, fern-like foliage
stiff needles that point in all directions
cones pendant at maturity
p. pungens, noted for blue color
a dwarf cultivar with showy red berries
needles in bundles of 2, 3 or 5
cone scales in some species with recurved prickle
some of the world's most important timber species
alternate leaf bud arrangement, distinguishes it from the metasequoia
most have flat green needles
dioecious, female produce single-seeded, fleshy, red aril
great for the shade
erect seed cones, not showy
susceptible to snow damage
twigs densely covered with tiny, scale-like aromatic leaves in flat, fan-like sprays
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