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52 terms

midterm-ap psych 18 and prologue

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contemporary psychology is best defined as the scientific study of
behavior and mental processes (thoughts and emotions)
the self reflective observation of one's own sensations and feelings
introspection
who believed that the mind and body are distinct and separable
socrates plato and descartes
the early school of psychology known as functionalism was developed by
james
dr. ochoa develops tests to accurately identify the most qualified job applicants in a large manufacturing firm. which psychological specialty does Dr. Ochoa's work best represent?
industrial/organizational psychology
working in a community mental health center, Dr. thatcher treats adults who suffer from severe depression. Dr. thrater is most likely a
clinical psychologist
a theoretical perspective in psychology can be like a two-dimensional view of a three-demensional object because each perspective is
limited in its scope
humanistic psychologist focused attention on the importance of
healthy growth potential
the survival of organisms best suited to a particular environment is known as
natural selection
professor crisman believes that most women prefer tall and physically strong partners because this preference enhanced the survival of our ancestors' genes. this viewpoint best illustrates the
evolutionary perspective
which perspective is most directly concerned with assessing the relative impact of both nature and nurture on our psychological traits?
behavior genetics
mrs. thompson believes that her son has become an excellent student because she consistenly uses praise and affection to stimulate his learning efforts. her belief best illustrates a
behavioral perspective
a clinical psychologist who explains behavior in terms of unconscious drives and conflicts is employing a
psychodynamic perspective
which perspective is most directly concerned with how the physical properties of the brain influence behaviors and mental states?
neuroscience
the behavioral perspective is most likely to emphasize the importance of
learning
the distinctive feature of the psychodynamic perspective is its emphasis on
unconscious conflicts
a concern with the reasoning processes that contribute to effective problem solving is most characteristic of the
cognitive perspective
dr. macpherson believs that the way students organize and think about the information in their textbooks will strongly influence their ability to later remember and use what they have studied. dr. macphersons ideas most directly exemplify the
cognitive perspective
dr. wilson attributes the delinquent behaviors of many teens to the pressures associated with being members of street gangs. her account best illustras a
social-cultural perspective
the specialist most likely to have a medical degree is an
psychiatrist
which branch of psychology is most directly concerned with the study of how people think about, influence and relate to one another?
social psychology
the tendency for observers to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposistions on anothers behavior is called
the fundamental attribution error
rhonda has just learned that her neighbor patricia was involved in an automobile accident at a nearby intersection. the tendencey to make the ______ may lead rhonda to conclude patricia's recklessness has finally gotten her into trouble
fundamental attribution error
the tendencey for intial complance with a small request to facilitate subsequent compliance with a larger request is known as the
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
after giving in to her friends' request that she drink alcohol with them, 16 year-old jessica found that she couldnt resist the pressure they exerted on her to try heroin. her experiences bestillustrates
the foot-in-the-door phenomenon
which theory best explains why our actions can lead us to modify our attitudes?
cognitive dissonance theory
during a test abe impulsively copied several answers from a nearby students paper. he felt very uncomfortable about having done this until he convinced himself that copying answers is not wrong if classmates are careless enoguh to expose their test sheets. which theory best expains why abe adopted this new attitude?
cognitive dissonance theory
solomon asch asked people to identify which of three comparison lines was identical to a standard line. his research was designed to study
conformity
solomon asch reported that individuals conformed to a group's judgment of the lengths of lines
even when the group judgment was clearly incorrect
luella publicly agrees with her seventh grade classmates that parents should allow 13 year olds to date. later that day, she writes in her diary that she actually believes parents should prohibit kids from dating until they are at least 15 years old. luellas public conformity to her classmates' opinion best illustrate sth power of
normative social influence
conformity resulting from the acceptance of others' opinions about reality is said to be a response to
informational social influence
the gradually escalating levels of destructive obedience in the milgram experiments best illustrate one of the potential dangers of
the foot-in-the-door phenomenon
to perform well-learned tasks more effectively in the presence of others
social facilitation
expert pool players were observed to make 71 percent of their shots when alone. when fourpeople watched them, they made 80 percent of their shots this best illustrates
social facilitation
on which of the following tasks would the presence of observers be least likely to tend ot better and faster performance
solving a crossword puzzle
the tendency for people to exert less effort when they are pooling their efforts toward a common goal is known as
social loafing
university students were observed to pull harder on a rope when they thought they were pulling alone than when they thought three others were pulling with them on the same rope this best illustrates
social loafing
a loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group sitations that foster arousal and anonymity
deindividuation
when NYU women were dressed in ku klux klan style hoods, they demonstrated significantly more aggression. this finding best explained in terms of
deindividuation
the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through group discussion
group polarization
nora, ko, ian and may each think that ms. akey may be a slightly better teach than mr. schwenke. after discussing why each oth them believes this to be so, they all conclude that ms. akey is definitely a much better teacher than mr. schwenke. this episode provides an example of
group polarization
an overwhelming desire for harmony in a decision-making group increases the possiblility of
group think
making judgments prior to knowing; an unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members
prejudice
when armen first heard the hit song "Gotta Love It" he wasnt at all sure he liked it. the more he heard it played howeer the more he enjoyed it. armens reaction illustrates
the mere exposure effect
arturo believes that most young women from california are extremely good looking and that extremely good looking women are usually selfish and egotistical. his beliefs are examples of
stereotypes
most children believe their school is better than the other schools in town this best illustrates
ingroup bias
ever since he lost his job because he was constantly late for work, richard has become increasingly hostile toward the "government bureaucrats who are leading the country toward bankruptcy" richards increasing prejudice is best explained in terms of
scapegoat theory
an eagerness to believe that victims of a natural disaster are being punished by God for their sins best illustrates a potential consequence of
the just-world phenomenon
when 12 year old jamilah saaw an old man lying on the sidewalk in apparent discomfort, he prepared to offer help. but when he notices several adults walk past the man, he concluded that the man did not need any help. his reaction most clearly illustrates
the bystander effect
the best explanation for the inaction of bystanders during the Kitty genovese murder is that they failed to
assume personal responsibility for helping the victim
the ideas of Francis Bacon provided an impetus for what came to be known as
empiricism
in 1942 reserve police officers obeyed orders to kill some 1500 jews in the village of Jozefow, Poland. this incident illustrated that people are most like to be destrucitvely obedient when they perceive their orders to come from
legitimate authority figures