29 terms

Intro to Corrections Chapter 1 terms

Prison inmates, probationers, parolees, offenders assigned to alternative sentencing programs, and those held in jails. (4)
Correctional Clients
A dedicated person of high moral character and personal integrity who is employed in the field of corrections and takes professionalism to heart. (30)
correctional professional
(also called penal law) That portion of the law that defines crimes and specifies criminal punishments. (24)
criminal law
All the various aspects of the pretrial and postconviction management of individuals accused or convicted of crimes. (21)
An annual statistical tally of major crimes known to law enforcement agencies in the United States. (10)
crime index
The number of index offenses reported for each unit of population. (10)
crime rate
The process of achieving justice through the application of the criminal law and through the workings of the criminal justice system. Also, the study of the field of criminal justice. (14)
criminal justice
The collection of all the agencies that perform criminal justice functions, whether these are operations or administration or technical support. The basic divisions of the criminal justice system are police, courts, and corrections. (14)
criminal justice system
A credentialing process, usually involving testing and career development assessment, through which the skills, knowledge, and abilities of correctional personnel can be formally recognized. (31)
The process by which a court arrives at a final decision in a case; or the second stage of the juvenile justice process in which the court decides whether the offender is formally responsible for (guilty of) the alleged offense. (19)
An appearance in court prior to trial in a criminal proceeding. (19)
Time-honored ways of doing things. Although they carry the force of tradition, their violation is unlikely to threaten the survival of the social group. (24)
A serious criminal offense; specifically, one punishable by death or by incarceration in a prison facility for more than a year. (9)
A minor violation of state statute or local ordinance punishable by a fine or other penalty but not by incarceration, or by a specified, usually very short term of incarceration. (9)
A relatively minor violation of the criminal law, such as petty theft or simple assault, punishable by confinement for one year or less. (9)
That aspect of the correctional enterprise that "involves the incarceration and rehabilitation of adults and juveniles convicted of offenses against the law, and the confinement of persons suspected of a crime awaiting trial and adjudication." (20)
institutional corrections
A plea of "no contest." A no-contest plea may be used by a defendant who does not wish to contest conviction. Because the plea does not admit guilt, it cannot provide the basis for later civil suits. (19)
nolo contendere
(also community corrections) That aspect of the correctional enterprise that includes "pardon, probation, and miscellaneous [activities] not directly related to institutional care." (21)
noninstitutional corrections
Cultural restrictions on behavior that forbid serious violations—such as murder, rape, and robbery— or a group's values. (24)
An occupation granted high-social status by virtue of the personal integrity of its members. (25)
Organizations of like-minded individuals who work to enhance the professional status of members of their professional group. (30)
professional associations
Burglary, larceny, automobile theft, and arson as reported by the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports. (10)
property crime
Interpersonal crime that involves the use of force by offenders or results in injury or death to victims. In the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports, ______ are murder, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault. (10)
violent crime
A writ issued by an appellate court to obtain from a lower court the record of its proceedings in a particular case. (20)
writ of certiorari
Social practices that explicitly or implicitly attribute merits or allocate value to individuals solely because of their race. (33)
A workhouse. The word came from the name of the first workhouse in England. (53)
corporal punishments
Physical punishments, or those involving the body. (42)
hedonistic calculus
The idea that people are motivated by pleasure and pain and that the proper amount of punishment can deter crime. (60)
The principle that the highest objective of public policy is the greatest happiness for the largest number of people. (60)