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Phlebotomy, Miami-Jacobs Career College, Cleveland, Ohio, Phlebotomy Handbook Edition 8, by Garza and McBride


pathologic condition existing when the blood pH decrease to less than 7.35


endocrine glands that produce hormones as a result of emotional changes like fright or anger. Hormone production causes an increase in blood pressure, widened pupils, and heart stimulation


a pathologic condition that results when the blood pH increases to more than 7.45. In serious cases, it can lead to coma

alveolar sacs

grapelike structures in the lungs that allow for diffusion between air and blood


a body function whereby cells use energy to make complex compounds from simpler ones. It allows the synthesis of body fluids (e.g., sweat, tears, saliva, etc.)


a study of the structural components of the body


surface region of the body characterized by the front (or ventral) area and including the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic cavities


fluid accumulation in the peritoneal cavity

body planes

four areas of the body that house vital organs, glands, blood vessels, and nerves. The human body has the following cavities: cranial, spinal, thoracic, and abdominal-pelvic

cardiac (striated involuntary) muscles

muscles that make up the wall of the heart


substance similar to bone except that cells are surrounded by a gelatinous material that allows for flexibility


chemical reactions in the body that break down complex substances into simper ones while simultaneously releasing energy. The process provides energy for all body functions

cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

fluid that surrounds the brain and meninges within the spinal column

circulatory system

a body system referring to the heart, blood vessels, and blood; responsible for transporting oxygen and nutrients to cells and transports carbon dioxide and wastes until they are eliminated; transports hormones, regulates body temperature, and helps defend against diseases

deep deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

molecule containing thousands of genes that make up an individual's genetic code. Often referred to as a double helix, DNA is inherited from parents and carries the code for an individual's characteristics such as eye or hair color, height, etc.

digestive system

body system referring to organs in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract that break down food chemically and physically into nutrients that can be absorbed by the body's cell and allow the elimination of waste products of digestion


a specific, measurable condition characterized by specific clinical symptoms, patient history, and laboratory or radiology results


a generic term referring to any pathologic condition of the mind or body


anatomical term meaning distant or away from point of attachment


surface region of the body characterized y the back (or posterior) area and including the cranial and spinal cavities

endocrine glands

ductless glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the bloodstream

exocrine glands

glands that secrete fluids through channels or ducts (e.g. sweat, saliva, mucus, digestive juices).

frontal plane

imaginary line running lengthwise on the body from side to side, dividing the body into anterior and posterior sections

gastrointestinal system

also referred to as the digestive system; body system that breaks down food chemically and physically into nutrients that can be absorbed and transported throughout the body to be used for energy by all body cells and, to eliminate the waste products of digestion through the production of feces.


located on a chromosome, it is a unit of heredity capable of reproducing itself exactly during cell division; it is made of segments of DNA


the study of blood and blood-forming tissues


the process of blood cell formation that occurs in the bone marrow

hemoglobin (Hgb)

the molecules that carry oxygen and carbon dioxide in the RBCs.


means literally "remaining the same"; also referred to as a steady-state condition, it is a normal state that allows the body to stay in a healthy balance by continually compensating with necessary changes


body substances secreted from glands that play a role in growth and development, fluid and electrolyte balance, energy balance, and acid-base balance

human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

a virus spread by sexual contact or exposure to infected blood


a subjective, non-measurable term for any departure from wellness (pain, suffering, distress)


the study of diseases of the immune system; allergic disorders

integumentary system

body system referring to skin, hair, sweat and oil glands, teeth, and fingernails; involved in protective and regulatory functions


directional term meaning towards the sides of the body


directional term meaning toward the midline of the body


pigment in the skin that provides color and protects underlying tissues from absorbing ultraviolet rays


protective membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord

metabolic acidosis

a pathologic condition that occurs when the kidneys cannot eliminate acidic substances (e.g., in diabetes mellitus). It can result in kidney (renal) failure and death

metabolic alkalosis

a pathologic condition that results from excessive vomiting or an abnormal secretion of certain hormones that cause's excess elimination of hydrogen ions (from CO2)


an important bodily function that allows the formation or breakdown of substances (e.g., proteins) for the purpose of using energy


the study of microbes; microbiologic tests typically use specialized media to detect the growth of infectious microbes from bodily specimens

motor neurons

nerve cells that transmit impulses to muscles from the spinal cord or the brain

muscular system

body system referring to all muscles of the body

nervous system

body system that includes organs that provide communication in the body, sensations, thoughts, emotions, and memories


specialized nerve cells that transmit nerve impulses


cell structure located inside the nucleus, aids in cellular metabolism and cellular reproduction


cell structure that is the cell's control center; it governs the functions of each individual cell (e.g., growth, repair, reproduction, and metabolism)

occult blood

analysis that detects hidden (occult) blood in the stool


small structures within cells

organ systems

groups of organs that have common functions


inflammation of the bone due to bacterial infection


a condition in which the bone becomes porous and at a higher risk of fracturing. This is due to reduced mineral density in bone and is more common in post-menopausal women, than in men

ova and parasites (O&P)

laboratory analysis performed on stool specimens that determines the presence of parasitic microorganisms or eggs of parasitic organisms


the origin of a disease


the study of all aspects of disease and abnormal conditions of the body


part of the digestive process whereby food is moved in wavelike contractions through the intestines


fluid from the abdominal cavity


study of the functional components of the body

pituitary gland

also referred to as the master gland, stimulates other glands to produce hormones as needed. It controls and regulates hormone production through chemical feedback

pleural fluid

fluid from the lung cavity


surface region of the body characterized by the back (or dorsal) area and including the cranial and spinal cavities


near the point of attachment

pulse rate

rate used to assess normal functioning of the cardiovascular system; it is measured off the pulse located in an artery. Normal pulse rate is about 75 beats per minute

red blood cells (RBCs)

or erythrocytes. Blood cells that function to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body

reproductive system

body system referring to organs involved in sperm production, secretion of hormones (e.g., testosterone, estrogens, and progesterone), ovulation, fertilization, menstruation, pregnancy, labor, and lactation

respiration rate

the measure off how many times a patient breathes in and out in one minute

respiratory acidosis

a pathologic condition that results when the respiratory system is unable to eliminate adequate amounts of CO2 (e.g., a collapsed lung or blocked respiratory passages)

respiratory alkalosis

a pathologic condition that results from hyperventilation or the loss of too much CO2 from the lung

respiratory system

body system referring to parts that assist in respiration or breathing (e.g., nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs)

sensory neurons

transmit nerve impulses to the spinal cord or the brain from muscle tissues

skeletal (striated voluntary) muscles

muscles that are attached to bones

skeletal system

body system composed of all bones and joints

steady state

also referred to as homeostasis, it is a condition that allows the normal body to stay in balance by continually compensating with necessary changes, thereby remaining in a healthy condition


near the surface of the body

synovial fluid

joint fluid

transverse plane

imaginary line running crosswise, or horizontally, on the body, dividing the body into upper and lower section

urinary system

body system referring to processes enabling the production and elimination of urine. Consists of kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra


surface region of the body characterized by the front (or anterior) area and including the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic cavities

visceral (nonstriated, smooth, involuntary) muscles

muscles that line the walls of internal structures

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