How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

80 terms

Phlebotomy Cht 6 Medical Terminology, Anatomy, and Physiology of Organ Systems

Phlebotomy, Miami-Jacobs Career College, Cleveland, Ohio, Phlebotomy Handbook Edition 8, by Garza and McBride
STUDY
PLAY
acidosis
pathologic condition existing when the blood pH decrease to less than 7.35
adrenals
endocrine glands that produce hormones as a result of emotional changes like fright or anger. Hormone production causes an increase in blood pressure, widened pupils, and heart stimulation
alkalosis
a pathologic condition that results when the blood pH increases to more than 7.45. In serious cases, it can lead to coma
alveolar sacs
grapelike structures in the lungs that allow for diffusion between air and blood
anabolism
a body function whereby cells use energy to make complex compounds from simpler ones. It allows the synthesis of body fluids (e.g., sweat, tears, saliva, etc.)
anatomy
a study of the structural components of the body
anterior
surface region of the body characterized by the front (or ventral) area and including the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic cavities
ascites
fluid accumulation in the peritoneal cavity
body planes
four areas of the body that house vital organs, glands, blood vessels, and nerves. The human body has the following cavities: cranial, spinal, thoracic, and abdominal-pelvic
cardiac (striated involuntary) muscles
muscles that make up the wall of the heart
cartilage
substance similar to bone except that cells are surrounded by a gelatinous material that allows for flexibility
catabolism
chemical reactions in the body that break down complex substances into simper ones while simultaneously releasing energy. The process provides energy for all body functions
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
fluid that surrounds the brain and meninges within the spinal column
circulatory system
a body system referring to the heart, blood vessels, and blood; responsible for transporting oxygen and nutrients to cells and transports carbon dioxide and wastes until they are eliminated; transports hormones, regulates body temperature, and helps defend against diseases
deep deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
molecule containing thousands of genes that make up an individual's genetic code. Often referred to as a double helix, DNA is inherited from parents and carries the code for an individual's characteristics such as eye or hair color, height, etc.
digestive system
body system referring to organs in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract that break down food chemically and physically into nutrients that can be absorbed by the body's cell and allow the elimination of waste products of digestion
disease
a specific, measurable condition characterized by specific clinical symptoms, patient history, and laboratory or radiology results
disorder
a generic term referring to any pathologic condition of the mind or body
distal
anatomical term meaning distant or away from point of attachment
dorsal
surface region of the body characterized y the back (or posterior) area and including the cranial and spinal cavities
endocrine glands
ductless glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the bloodstream
exocrine glands
glands that secrete fluids through channels or ducts (e.g. sweat, saliva, mucus, digestive juices).
frontal plane
imaginary line running lengthwise on the body from side to side, dividing the body into anterior and posterior sections
gastrointestinal system
also referred to as the digestive system; body system that breaks down food chemically and physically into nutrients that can be absorbed and transported throughout the body to be used for energy by all body cells and, to eliminate the waste products of digestion through the production of feces.
genes
located on a chromosome, it is a unit of heredity capable of reproducing itself exactly during cell division; it is made of segments of DNA
hematology
the study of blood and blood-forming tissues
hematopoiesis
the process of blood cell formation that occurs in the bone marrow
hemoglobin (Hgb)
the molecules that carry oxygen and carbon dioxide in the RBCs.
homeostasis
means literally "remaining the same"; also referred to as a steady-state condition, it is a normal state that allows the body to stay in a healthy balance by continually compensating with necessary changes
hormones
body substances secreted from glands that play a role in growth and development, fluid and electrolyte balance, energy balance, and acid-base balance
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
a virus spread by sexual contact or exposure to infected blood
illness
a subjective, non-measurable term for any departure from wellness (pain, suffering, distress)
immunology
the study of diseases of the immune system; allergic disorders
integumentary system
body system referring to skin, hair, sweat and oil glands, teeth, and fingernails; involved in protective and regulatory functions
lateral
directional term meaning towards the sides of the body
medial
directional term meaning toward the midline of the body
melanin
pigment in the skin that provides color and protects underlying tissues from absorbing ultraviolet rays
meninges
protective membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord
metabolic acidosis
a pathologic condition that occurs when the kidneys cannot eliminate acidic substances (e.g., in diabetes mellitus). It can result in kidney (renal) failure and death
metabolic alkalosis
a pathologic condition that results from excessive vomiting or an abnormal secretion of certain hormones that cause's excess elimination of hydrogen ions (from CO2)
metabolism
an important bodily function that allows the formation or breakdown of substances (e.g., proteins) for the purpose of using energy
microbiology
the study of microbes; microbiologic tests typically use specialized media to detect the growth of infectious microbes from bodily specimens
motor neurons
nerve cells that transmit impulses to muscles from the spinal cord or the brain
muscular system
body system referring to all muscles of the body
nervous system
body system that includes organs that provide communication in the body, sensations, thoughts, emotions, and memories
neurons
specialized nerve cells that transmit nerve impulses
nucleolus
cell structure located inside the nucleus, aids in cellular metabolism and cellular reproduction
nucleus
cell structure that is the cell's control center; it governs the functions of each individual cell (e.g., growth, repair, reproduction, and metabolism)
occult blood
analysis that detects hidden (occult) blood in the stool
organelles
small structures within cells
organ systems
groups of organs that have common functions
osteomyelitis
inflammation of the bone due to bacterial infection
osteoporosis
a condition in which the bone becomes porous and at a higher risk of fracturing. This is due to reduced mineral density in bone and is more common in post-menopausal women, than in men
ova and parasites (O&P)
laboratory analysis performed on stool specimens that determines the presence of parasitic microorganisms or eggs of parasitic organisms
pathogenesis
the origin of a disease
pathology
the study of all aspects of disease and abnormal conditions of the body
peristalsis
part of the digestive process whereby food is moved in wavelike contractions through the intestines
peritoneal
fluid from the abdominal cavity
physiology
study of the functional components of the body
pituitary gland
also referred to as the master gland, stimulates other glands to produce hormones as needed. It controls and regulates hormone production through chemical feedback
pleural fluid
fluid from the lung cavity
posterior
surface region of the body characterized by the back (or dorsal) area and including the cranial and spinal cavities
proximal
near the point of attachment
pulse rate
rate used to assess normal functioning of the cardiovascular system; it is measured off the pulse located in an artery. Normal pulse rate is about 75 beats per minute
red blood cells (RBCs)
or erythrocytes. Blood cells that function to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body
reproductive system
body system referring to organs involved in sperm production, secretion of hormones (e.g., testosterone, estrogens, and progesterone), ovulation, fertilization, menstruation, pregnancy, labor, and lactation
respiration rate
the measure off how many times a patient breathes in and out in one minute
respiratory acidosis
a pathologic condition that results when the respiratory system is unable to eliminate adequate amounts of CO2 (e.g., a collapsed lung or blocked respiratory passages)
respiratory alkalosis
a pathologic condition that results from hyperventilation or the loss of too much CO2 from the lung
respiratory system
body system referring to parts that assist in respiration or breathing (e.g., nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs)
sensory neurons
transmit nerve impulses to the spinal cord or the brain from muscle tissues
skeletal (striated voluntary) muscles
muscles that are attached to bones
skeletal system
body system composed of all bones and joints
steady state
also referred to as homeostasis, it is a condition that allows the normal body to stay in balance by continually compensating with necessary changes, thereby remaining in a healthy condition
superficial
near the surface of the body
synovial fluid
joint fluid
transverse plane
imaginary line running crosswise, or horizontally, on the body, dividing the body into upper and lower section
urinary system
body system referring to processes enabling the production and elimination of urine. Consists of kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra
ventral
surface region of the body characterized by the front (or anterior) area and including the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic cavities
visceral (nonstriated, smooth, involuntary) muscles
muscles that line the walls of internal structures