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endocrine glands that produce hormones as a result of emotional changes like fright or anger. Hormone production causes an increase in blood pressure, widened pupils, and heart stimulation
a pathologic condition that results when the blood pH increases to more than 7.45. In serious cases, it can lead to coma
a body function whereby cells use energy to make complex compounds from simpler ones. It allows the synthesis of body fluids (e.g., sweat, tears, saliva, etc.)
surface region of the body characterized by the front (or ventral) area and including the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic cavities
four areas of the body that house vital organs, glands, blood vessels, and nerves. The human body has the following cavities: cranial, spinal, thoracic, and abdominal-pelvic
substance similar to bone except that cells are surrounded by a gelatinous material that allows for flexibility
chemical reactions in the body that break down complex substances into simper ones while simultaneously releasing energy. The process provides energy for all body functions
a body system referring to the heart, blood vessels, and blood; responsible for transporting oxygen and nutrients to cells and transports carbon dioxide and wastes until they are eliminated; transports hormones, regulates body temperature, and helps defend against diseases
deep deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
molecule containing thousands of genes that make up an individual's genetic code. Often referred to as a double helix, DNA is inherited from parents and carries the code for an individual's characteristics such as eye or hair color, height, etc.
body system referring to organs in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract that break down food chemically and physically into nutrients that can be absorbed by the body's cell and allow the elimination of waste products of digestion
a specific, measurable condition characterized by specific clinical symptoms, patient history, and laboratory or radiology results
surface region of the body characterized y the back (or posterior) area and including the cranial and spinal cavities
ductless glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the bloodstream
glands that secrete fluids through channels or ducts (e.g. sweat, saliva, mucus, digestive juices).
imaginary line running lengthwise on the body from side to side, dividing the body into anterior and posterior sections
also referred to as the digestive system; body system that breaks down food chemically and physically into nutrients that can be absorbed and transported throughout the body to be used for energy by all body cells and, to eliminate the waste products of digestion through the production of feces.
located on a chromosome, it is a unit of heredity capable of reproducing itself exactly during cell division; it is made of segments of DNA
means literally "remaining the same"; also referred to as a steady-state condition, it is a normal state that allows the body to stay in a healthy balance by continually compensating with necessary changes
body substances secreted from glands that play a role in growth and development, fluid and electrolyte balance, energy balance, and acid-base balance
a subjective, non-measurable term for any departure from wellness (pain, suffering, distress)
body system referring to skin, hair, sweat and oil glands, teeth, and fingernails; involved in protective and regulatory functions
pigment in the skin that provides color and protects underlying tissues from absorbing ultraviolet rays
a pathologic condition that occurs when the kidneys cannot eliminate acidic substances (e.g., in diabetes mellitus). It can result in kidney (renal) failure and death
a pathologic condition that results from excessive vomiting or an abnormal secretion of certain hormones that cause's excess elimination of hydrogen ions (from CO2)
an important bodily function that allows the formation or breakdown of substances (e.g., proteins) for the purpose of using energy
the study of microbes; microbiologic tests typically use specialized media to detect the growth of infectious microbes from bodily specimens
body system that includes organs that provide communication in the body, sensations, thoughts, emotions, and memories
cell structure located inside the nucleus, aids in cellular metabolism and cellular reproduction
cell structure that is the cell's control center; it governs the functions of each individual cell (e.g., growth, repair, reproduction, and metabolism)
a condition in which the bone becomes porous and at a higher risk of fracturing. This is due to reduced mineral density in bone and is more common in post-menopausal women, than in men
ova and parasites (O&P)
laboratory analysis performed on stool specimens that determines the presence of parasitic microorganisms or eggs of parasitic organisms
part of the digestive process whereby food is moved in wavelike contractions through the intestines
also referred to as the master gland, stimulates other glands to produce hormones as needed. It controls and regulates hormone production through chemical feedback
surface region of the body characterized by the back (or dorsal) area and including the cranial and spinal cavities
rate used to assess normal functioning of the cardiovascular system; it is measured off the pulse located in an artery. Normal pulse rate is about 75 beats per minute
red blood cells (RBCs)
or erythrocytes. Blood cells that function to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body
body system referring to organs involved in sperm production, secretion of hormones (e.g., testosterone, estrogens, and progesterone), ovulation, fertilization, menstruation, pregnancy, labor, and lactation
a pathologic condition that results when the respiratory system is unable to eliminate adequate amounts of CO2 (e.g., a collapsed lung or blocked respiratory passages)
a pathologic condition that results from hyperventilation or the loss of too much CO2 from the lung
body system referring to parts that assist in respiration or breathing (e.g., nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs)
also referred to as homeostasis, it is a condition that allows the normal body to stay in balance by continually compensating with necessary changes, thereby remaining in a healthy condition
imaginary line running crosswise, or horizontally, on the body, dividing the body into upper and lower section
body system referring to processes enabling the production and elimination of urine. Consists of kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra
surface region of the body characterized by the front (or anterior) area and including the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic cavities
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