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Radiation Quantities and Units (Ch4)
Terms in this set (25)
The amount of energy per unit mass absorbed by an irradiated object
SI quantity that can be used to express radiation concentration transferred to a point, which may be at the surface of a patient's or radiographer's body.
It is replacing the traditional quantity, exposure and actually denotes a calculation of radiation intensity in air. "X-ray tube output and inputs to image receptors are sometimes described in this
Collective Effective Dose (ColEfD)
Used to describe radiation exposure of a population or group from low doses of different sources of ionization radiation.
Committed Effective Dose Equivalent (CEDE)
A measure of the probabilistic health effect on an individual as a result of an intake of radioactive material into the body.
the basic unit of electrical charge. It represents the quantity of electrical charge flowing past a point in a circuit in 1 second when an electrical current of 1 ampere is used
Coulombs per Kilogram
This is the SI unit of exposure & is simply equal to an electrical charge of 1 C produced in a kilogram of dry air by ionizing radiation. Its traditional unit is the roentgen (R)
Deep Dose Equivalent (DDE)
A measurement of the dose to tissues at a tissue depth of 1 cm or greater.
Dose Area Product (DAP)
Essentially the sum total of air kerma over the exposed area of the patient's surface or, in other words, a measure of the amount of radiant energy that has been thrust into a portion of the patient's body surface and is usually specified in units of mGy-cm^2.
Exposure received by professional radiation workers in the course of exercising their responsibilities.
Early Deterministic Somatic Effects
Appear within minutes, hours, weeks or time of exposure. Believed to be preventable if doses of radiation were limited and kept lower.
Late Deterministic Somatic Effects
Appears months or years after the exposure and has possibilities of genetic or inheritable defects.
Late Stochastic Effects
Cancer and genetic hereditary effects.
Genetic or heritable effects
Biologic effects of ionizing radiation on generations yet unborn
The total electrical charge of one sign, either all pluses or all minuses, per unit mass that x-ray and gamma ray photons with energies up to 3 million electron volts (MeV) generate in dry (i.e., nonhumid) air at standard temperature and pressure
Surface integral dose (SID)
Total amount of radiant energy xferred by ionizing radiation to the body during radiation exposure. (AKA exposure area product)
This quantity is determined by the product of the exposure value (in Gy) and the size of the area (m^2) that receives the total amount of radiation delivered. The SI unit for this is the Gy-m^2.
Linear Energy Transfer (LET)
This helps explain the need for a quality, or modifying, factor & is the amount of energy transferred on average by incident radiation to an object per unit length of track through the object and is expressed in units of keV/µm
Radiation weighting factor(WR)
Used to calculate the equivalent dose to determine the ability of a dose of any kind of ionizing radiation to cause biologic damage.
Equivalent Dose (EqD)
"A dimensionless factor" (a multiplier) selected by national and international scientific advisory bodies (NCRP, ICRP) and are based on quality factors and LET
Effective Dose (EfD)
Based on the energy deposited in biologic tissue by ionizing radiation. It takes into account the type of radiation (e.g., x-radiation, gamma, neutron) and the variable sensitivity of the tissues exposed to radiation. This quantity is actually a measure of the overall risk arising from the irradiation of biologic tissue and organs. It takes into consideration the exposure to the entire body & is expressed in sieverts (Sv).
Tissue Weighting Factor (Wr)
factor that takes into account the relative detriment to each specific organ and tissue.
Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE)
It is the sum of effective dose equivalent from external radiation exposures and a quantity called committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) from internal radiation exposures and is designed to take into account all possible sources of radiation exposure.
biologic damage to the body of the exposed individual caused by exposure to ionizing radiation, were reported in Europe as early as 1896
The current unit of dose equivalent which attempts to reflect the biological effects of radiation. It is found by multiplying the absorbed dose in grays.
International system of units
This system, developed in 1948 by the International Committee for Weights and Measures, makes possible the interchange of units among all branches of science throughout the world. The system of units (SI) used by scientists to measure the properties of matter for the world.
The SI unit of absorbed dose - the amount of energy per unit mass absorbed by an irradiated object. This absorbed energy is responsible for any biologic damage resulting from the tissues being exposed to radiation. For this reason the absorbed dose may be used to indicate the amount of ionizing radiation a patient receives during a diagnostic imaging procedure
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