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Terms in this set (46)
Membranes consist primarily of
Phospholipids arranged in a bilayer
Proteins, carbohydrates, sterols
Phospholipid membranes can exist
In the nucleus, ribosomes, mitochondria
Phospholipids are made up of
Two fatty acids attached to glycerol
The third hydroxyl group of lights Roth is joined to a phosphate group, which has a negative electrical charge in the cell
The phospholipids have both
Hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts.
The hydrophobic tails remain on the inside while the hydrophilic heads face the water and cytoplasm.
Fluidity (viscosity) is based on
The fatty acid composition of the phospholipids
Singer and Nicholas
Propose the fluid Mosaic model of membrane structure
They proposed this model during the
According to the fluid Mosaic model of membrane structure
The phospholipids are spinning and the entire membrane is moving around like seaweed at the bottom of the sea. It is all in a state of flux. It is very active. It is A mosaic of thousands of little molecules.
Membrane proteins are involved in
Cytoskeleton's, transport, receptors, and enzymes.
If they are like toilet paper roles and hallowed out they act as transport.
Receptors are like base ball gloves on the surface waiting to catch something. Then they tell the rest of the molecule, "hey I found something"
And some catalyze reactions by acting as enzymes
Membranes can be either
Peripheral or transmembrane (integral)
Located on one side of the membrane
Span all of the way through
For example: a double helix
We need a tunnel protein to get
Chlorine ions in and out
Short-term energy storage
Can be attached to a phospholipid (glycolopid)
Or attached to an amino acid in a protein (glycoprotein)
Animals use cholesterol
Help to regulate membrane fluidity
If molecules are close together you will have a
If molecules are more spaced out you will have a
If molecules are very spaced out you will have a
What spreads out modules?
Kinks in the tales, liquefying them
Putting a cholesterol in there
Really pushes them away
Adding them loosens the membrane up
You can put cholesterol in or out
As necessary to try to maintain that oil fluidity
Otherwise in the heats we would
And during the winter
We would stiffen up
The two men
Took a human cell and fluorescent dyes to die all of the proteins in the membrane and then they took A mouse cell and they used a red dye to color it's proteins red. Then they put the two cells together and in the presence of anti-freeze and they fused together creating a hybrid cell. And they knew that poteen's were fluidic like because the proteins mixed and created red and blue polkadots everywhere.
No double bonds
What is the job of the membrane?
To regulate what enters and or exits a cell or cellular compartment.
Selectively permeable and differentially permeable
To pass through
Can you get through?
Substances that are small and nonpolar can get through (hydrophobic)
Substances that are large and polar
Membrane transport is influenced by
Gradients are unequal distribution of something
List some examples of different types of gradients
Height (ball at the top of a hill)
Thermal (standing next to an open freezer)
There is more heat in the room then there is in the freezer so the heat will enter the freezer. That will push the cold air out and you will feel breeze.
Pressure (sound waves)
The amount of solute over the amount of solvent.
How many mechanisms of membrane transport are there?
There are four:
Net movement of a differential substance from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration
Passive - no energy required
Membranes must be what to work properly?
Fluidity of a membrane affects what?
Both its permeability and the ability of membrane proteins to move to where their function is needed.
In many plants that tolerate extreme cold, such as winter wheat, the percentage of
Unsaturated phospholipids increases in autumn, an adjustment that keeps membranes from solidifying during the winter.
Referring to Mosaic, a membrane is a
Collage of different proteins and bio molecules, often clustered together in groups, and bedded in the fluid matrix of the lipid bilayer.
How many kinds of proteins have been found in the plasma membrane of red blood cells alone?
More than 50 kinds of proteins have been found so far.
What form at the main fabric of the membrane?
What to determine most of the membranes functions?
A single cell may have cell service membrane proteins that carry out several different functions such as
Transport through the cell, enzymatic activity, or attaching a cell either a neighboring cell or the extracellular matrix.
How many functions can be single membrane proteins carry out?
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