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3 purposes of punishment

retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation


wrong done should be met with an equivalent form of suffering


attempt to prevent further criminal behaviour through punishment; discourage them from re-offending and committing similar crimes


offender can be brought back to society through education, therapy, or positive supportive environment

5 stages of prejudice

verbal rejection, avoidance, discrimination, semi-violence or violence, extermination

verbal rejection

talking to people about prejudice or exchanging jokes


shuns contact with group even if inconvenient


not hire members of a minority or campaigns to exclude them from living in the neighbourhood

semi-violence or violence

racist slogans on walls, property vandalized, minority member is intimidated, attacked, or jostled


government allows murders by gangs/genocide

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