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The incorporation of a molecule into the host molecule


The accumulation of molecules on the surface of a solid or liquid


When a precipitate is allowed to stand in the presence of the hot solution from which it was precipitated, the large crystals grow at the expense of the small ones. Process of crystal trying to fix itself

Gravimetric analysis

Process of precipitating something out of solution to measure how much was in soln

Homogeneous precipitation

the precipitating agent is synthesized in the solution rather than added mechanically


small particles come together on dust to form a stable solid


occurs when a coagulated precipitate converts back to its original dispersed state


The insoluble solid that forms during the reaction

Saturated solution

Solution contains maximum number of dissolved particles

Supersaturated solution

Solution exceeds the maximum number of dissolved particles.


on the left; where oxidation occurs


on the right; where reduction occurs


SI unit that measures electricity


SI unit that measures electrical current; equivalent to 1 C/sec


the flow of electrons in a cell

Potential, Eo

Cell potential is determined by the tendency of the ions to give off or take electrons


Either the anode or the cathode; connection between the chemical reaction and the external circuit.

Faraday constant

unit of electricity 96,87 coulombs eq-1

Galvanic/Voltaic cell

Batteries that store energy; spontaneous rxns; produce electrical energy

Electrolytic Cell

Require an external source of energy; nonspontaneous


the oxidation or reduction component of a redox reaction


SI unit of energy

Nernst equation

E=E^o- .0592/n log⁡(([C]^c [D]^d)/([A]^a [B]^b ))


loss of electrons


gain of electrons

Oxidizing agent

the species that gets reduced

Reducing agent

the species that gets oxidized


placed between the electrodes to measure the difference in the potentials

Reaction quotient

the relative proportion of products and reactants present in the reaction mixture at some instant of time other than equilibrium.

redox reaction

occurs between a reducing and an oxidizing agent

salt bridge

allows charge transfer through the solutions but prevents mixing of the solutions

standard reduction potential

potential of half reaction used to determine cell potential

Calomel electrode

commonly used reference electrode. Hg | Hg2Cl2

Combination electrode

An electrode that contains both the indicator and the reference electrode

Glass electrode

Good at binding H+ ions and therefore measuring pH

Indicator electrode

potential is determined by the analyte; measures the analyte

Ion-selective electrode

converts the activity of a specific ion into electric potential

Reference electrode

Constant potential; completes the cell but does not respond to the analyte

Junction potential

liquid junction between two dissimilar solutions prevents mixing. salt bridge


measures the voltage; focuses on low-resistance circuits.


Measures the electrical current; focuses on high-resistance circuits

SCE (saturated calomel electrode)

commonly used reference electrode. Hg | Hg2Cl2 with solid KI

Silver-silver chloride electrode

Ag | AgCl common reference electrode

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