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43 terms

Chem Test 4 Terms

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Absorption
The incorporation of a molecule into the host molecule
Adsorption
The accumulation of molecules on the surface of a solid or liquid
Digestion
When a precipitate is allowed to stand in the presence of the hot solution from which it was precipitated, the large crystals grow at the expense of the small ones. Process of crystal trying to fix itself
Gravimetric analysis
Process of precipitating something out of solution to measure how much was in soln
Homogeneous precipitation
the precipitating agent is synthesized in the solution rather than added mechanically
Nucleation
small particles come together on dust to form a stable solid
Peptization
occurs when a coagulated precipitate converts back to its original dispersed state
Precipitate
The insoluble solid that forms during the reaction
Saturated solution
Solution contains maximum number of dissolved particles
Supersaturated solution
Solution exceeds the maximum number of dissolved particles.
Anode
on the left; where oxidation occurs
Cathode
on the right; where reduction occurs
Coulomb
SI unit that measures electricity
Ampere
SI unit that measures electrical current; equivalent to 1 C/sec
Current
the flow of electrons in a cell
Potential, Eo
Cell potential is determined by the tendency of the ions to give off or take electrons
Electrode
Either the anode or the cathode; connection between the chemical reaction and the external circuit.
Faraday constant
unit of electricity 96,87 coulombs eq-1
Galvanic/Voltaic cell
Batteries that store energy; spontaneous rxns; produce electrical energy
Electrolytic Cell
Require an external source of energy; nonspontaneous
Half-reaction
the oxidation or reduction component of a redox reaction
Joule
SI unit of energy
Nernst equation
E=E^o- .0592/n log⁡(([C]^c [D]^d)/([A]^a [B]^b ))
Oxidation
loss of electrons
Reduction
gain of electrons
Oxidizing agent
the species that gets reduced
Reducing agent
the species that gets oxidized
Voltmeter
placed between the electrodes to measure the difference in the potentials
Reaction quotient
the relative proportion of products and reactants present in the reaction mixture at some instant of time other than equilibrium.
redox reaction
occurs between a reducing and an oxidizing agent
salt bridge
allows charge transfer through the solutions but prevents mixing of the solutions
standard reduction potential
potential of half reaction used to determine cell potential
Calomel electrode
commonly used reference electrode. Hg | Hg2Cl2
Combination electrode
An electrode that contains both the indicator and the reference electrode
Glass electrode
Good at binding H+ ions and therefore measuring pH
Indicator electrode
potential is determined by the analyte; measures the analyte
Ion-selective electrode
converts the activity of a specific ion into electric potential
Reference electrode
Constant potential; completes the cell but does not respond to the analyte
Junction potential
liquid junction between two dissimilar solutions prevents mixing. salt bridge
Potentiometry
measures the voltage; focuses on low-resistance circuits.
Voltametry
Measures the electrical current; focuses on high-resistance circuits
SCE (saturated calomel electrode)
commonly used reference electrode. Hg | Hg2Cl2 with solid KI
Silver-silver chloride electrode
Ag | AgCl common reference electrode