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Terms in this set (16)

-With the development of the Greek city-states came the construction of large temples and sanctuaries dedicated to patron deities, which signaled the rise of state religion.
-Each polis identified with its own legendary hero
End of the eighth century B.C., the Greeks had founded a number of major Panhellenic sanctuaries dedicated to the Olympian gods.
-Geometric Greece experienced a cultural revival of its historical past through epic poetry and the visual arts.
Eighth century B.C. was the time of Homer, whose epic poems describe the Greek campaign against Troy (the Iliad) and the subsequent adventures of Odysseus on his return to Ithaca (the Odyssey).
-Newly emerging aristocracy distinguished itself with material wealth and through references to the Homeric past.
-Their graves were furnished with metal objects, innately precious by the scarcity of copper, tin, and gold deposits in Greece.
-Geometric culture; in the form of epic poetry, artistic representation, and the archaeological record.
From Hesiod (Erga, 639-640), most eighth century B.C. Greeks lived off the land.
-The epic poet describes the difficult life of the Geometric farmer.
-Archaeological remains that describe everyday life during this period
-Monumental kraters, originally used as grave markers, depict funerary rituals and heroic warriors
Presence of fine metalwork attests to prosperity and trade.
-Weapons, fibulae, and jewelry are found in graves—most likely relating to the status of the deceased.
-Votive offerings of bronze and terracotta, and painted scenes on monumental vessels attest to a renewed interest in figural imagery that focuses on funerary rituals and the heroic world of aristocratic warriors and their equipment
-Armed warrior, the chariot, and the horse are the most familiar symbols of the Geometric period
Images lack of inscriptions and the scarcity of identifying attributes.
-Turning, decorating, and firing terracotta vases; casting and coldworking bronze; engraving gems; and working gold
-Only significant medium that had not yet evolved was that of monumental stone sculpture—large-scale cult images most likely were constructed of a perishable material such as wood.
-Instead, powerful bronze figurines and monumental clay vases manifest the clarity and order that are, perhaps, the most salient characteristics of Greek art.
-Abstract geometric patterning that was dominant between about 1050 and 700 B.C. is supplanted in the seventh century by a more naturalistic style reflecting significant influence from the Near East and Egypt.
-Trading stations in the Levant and the Nile Delta, continuing Greek colonization in the east and west, as well as contact with eastern craftsmen, notably on Crete and Cyprus, inspired Greek artists to work in techniques as diverse as gem cutting, ivory carving, jewelry making, and metalworking
-Eastern pictorial motifs were introduced—palmette and lotus compositions, animal hunts, and such composite beasts as griffins (part bird, part lion), sphinxes (part woman, part winged lion), and sirens (part woman, part bird)
-As they grew in wealth and power, the poleis on the coast of Asia Minor and neighboring islands competed with one another in the construction of sanctuaries with huge stone temples.
-Lyric poetry, the primary literary medium of the day, attained new heights in the work of such notable poets as Archilochos of Paros and Sappho of Lesbos.
-Lydia ruled by king Croesus influenced eastern Greek art. Sculptors in the Aegean islands, notably on Naxos and Samos, carved large-scale statues in marble.
Goldsmiths on Rhodes specialized in fine jewelry, and bronzeworkers on Crete fashioned armor and plaques decorated with superb reliefs
-Prominent artistic centers of mainland Greece—notably Sparta, Corinth, and Athens—also exhibited significant regional variation
-Sparta and its neighbors in Laconia produced remarkable ivory carvings and distinctive bronzes
Corinthian artisans invented a style of silhouetted forms that focused on tapestry-like patterns of small animals and plant motifs.
-Vase painters of Athens were more inclined to illustrate mythological scenes
-Greek-speaking people came together for festivals and the games that were held at the major Panhellenic sanctuaries on mainland Greece, such as Olympia and Delphi
-Greek artists made increasingly naturalistic representations of the human figure.
-Two types of freestanding, large-scale sculptures predominated: the male kouros, or standing nude youth, and the female kore, or standing draped maiden
Erected in sanctuaries and in cemeteries outside the city walls, these large stone statues served as dedications to the gods or as grave markers.
Such monuments also took the form of stelai, often decorated in relief.
-Sanctuaries were a focus of artistic achievement at this time and served as major repositories of works of art
-The two main orders of Greek architecture—the Doric order of mainland Greece and the western colonies, and the Ionic order of the Greek cities on the coast of Asia Minor and the Ionian islands—were well established by the beginning of the sixth century B.C. Temple architecture continued to be refined throughout the century by a process of vibrant experimentation, often through building projects initiated by rulers such as Peisistratos of Athens and Polykrates of Samos.
-Buildings were often embellished with sculptural figures of stone or terracotta paintings and elaborate moldings.
-True narrative scenes in relief sculpture
-Artists became interested in showing figures, especially the human figure, in motion
-Athens established the Panathenaic games
-Statues of victorious athletes were erected as dedications in Greek sanctuaries, and trophy amphorai were decorated with the event in which the athlete had triumphed.
-Creativity and innovation
-Thales of Miletos, demonstrated the cycles of nature and successfully predicted a solar eclipse and the solstices.
-Lawgiver and poet Solon instituted groundbreaking reforms and established a written code of laws.
Potters (both native and foreign-born) mastered Corinthian techniques in Athens and by 550 B.C., Athenian—also called "Attic" for the region around Athens—black-figure pottery dominated the export market throughout the Mediterranean region
Athenian vases of the second half of the sixth century B.C. provide a wealth of iconography illuminating numerous aspects of Greek culture, including funerary rites, daily life, symposia, athletics, warfare, religion, and mythology.
-Red-figure technique, which offered greater opportunities for drawing and eventually superseded black-figure, is conventionally dated about 530 B.C. and attributed to the workshop of the potter Andokides.
-Noble figure of a youth is one of the earliest freestanding marble statues from Attica, the region around Athens.
-Noble figure of a youth is one of the earliest freestanding marble statues from Attica, the region around Athens.
-Most kouroi were made in the Archaic period, between the late seventh and early fifth centuries B.C., and are believed to have served as grave markers or as dedications in the sanctuary of a god.
-Greeks learned to quarry stone and plan the execution of large-scale statues from the Egyptians, who had been working very hard stones for centuries
-Pose of the kouros, a clear and simple formula, derives from Egyptian art and was used by Greek sculptors for more than a hundred years
-Greeks depicted their male figures in the nude, while the Egyptians were normally skirted
-Greek artist also evenly distributed the weight of the figure as though in the act of walking, eliminating the rectangular pillar of stone that is found on the back of Egyptian statues.
-Greek kouros looks stiff and unnaturalistic to us, it exemplifies two important aspects of Archaic Greek art—an interest in lifelike vitality and a concern with design.
-Geometric almost abstract forms predominate, and complex anatomical details, such as the chest muscles and pelvic arch, are rendered in beautiful analogous patterns.
-Formulas, such as that used for the knees and wrists, are borrowed from Egyptian art.
-On the head, all the features are placed on the front plane, leaving flat sides with an ear placed much too far back, although the artist has made a beautiful design of the complex structure of the ear itself
-Long curly hair is rendered as lovely strings of beads, and other details were added in paint, as traces on the figure reveal.
-Strong fleet, Athens gradually transformed the originally voluntary members of the League into subjects
-Treasury was moved from Delos to the Athenian Akropolis, the city had become a wealthy imperial power.
-Developed into the first democracy.
-All adult male citizens participated in the elections and meetings of the assembly, which served as both the seat of government and a court of law
-Perikles (r. ca. 461-429 B.C.), the most creative and adroit statesman of the third quarter of the fifth century B.C., transformed the Akropolis into a lasting monument to Athen's newfound political and economic power.
-Dedicated to Athena, the city's patron goddess, the Parthenon epitomizes the architectural and sculptural grandeur of Perikles' building program.
-Doric temple stood the colossal gold-and-ivory statue of Athena made by the Greek sculptor Pheidias (inside)
-Constructed entirely of marble and richly embellished with sculpture, some of the finest examples of the high -Classical style of the mid-fifth century B.C. Its sculptural decoration has had a major impact on other works of art, from the fifth century B.C. through the present day
-Greek artists of the fifth and fourth centuries B.C. attained a manner of representation that conveys a vitality of life as well as a sense of permanence, clarity, and harmony
-Bronze, valued for its tensile strength and lustrous beauty, became the preferred medium for freestanding statuary, although very few bronze originals of the fifth century B.C. survive
-Middle of the fifth century B.C. is often referred to as the Golden Age of Greece, particularly of Athens
-Significant achievements were made in Attic vase painting
-Most notably, the red-figure technique superseded the black-figure technique, and with that, great strides were made in portraying the human body, clothed or naked, at rest or in motion
-Classical expression was short-lived, it is important to note that it was forged during the Persian Wars (490-479 B.C.)
-Depictions of Athenian drama, which flourished in the fifth century with the work of Aeschylus, Sophokles, and Euripides, was an especially popular subject for locally produced pottery
-Philip II (r. 360/59-336 B.C.), and the Macedonian royal court became the leading center of Greek culture
-Sculptor Lysippos, arguably one of the most important artists of the fourth century B.C.
-His works, most notably his portraits of Alexander (and the work they influenced), inaugurated many features of Hellenistic sculpture, such as the heroic ruler portrait
-When Alexander died in 323 B.C., his successors, many of whom adopted this portrait type, divided up the vast empire into smaller kingdoms that transformed the political and cultural world during the Hellenistic period
-Alexander the Great and his armies conquered much of the known world, creating an empire that stretched from Greece and Asia Minor through Egypt and the Persian empire in the Near East to India
-Unprecedented contact with cultures far and wide disseminated Greek culture and its arts, and exposed Greek artistic styles to a host of new exotic influences
-Death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C. traditionally marks the beginning of the Hellenistic period
-Alexander's generals, known as the Diadochoi, that is, "successors," divided the many lands of his empire into kingdoms of their own
-New Hellenistic dynasties emerged—the Seleucids in the Near East, the Ptolemies in Egypt (2002.66), and the Antigonids in Macedonia
-Greek city-states asserted their independence through alliances
-Most important of such alliances between several city-states were the Aitolian League in western central Greece and the Achaian League based in the Peloponnese
-Smaller kingdoms broke off from the vast Seleucid kingdom and established their independence.
Northern and central Asia Minor was divided into the kingdoms of Bithynia, Galatia, Paphlagonia, Pontus, and Cappadocia
-New kingdoms was ruled by a local dynasty lingering from the earlier Achaemenid Persian empire, but infused with new, Greek elements
-Attalid royal family of the great city-state of Pergamon reigned over much of western Asia Minor, and an influential dynasty of Greek and Macedonian descent ruled over a vast kingdom that stretched from Bactria to the Far East.
-In this greatly expanded Greek world, Hellenistic art and culture emerged and flourished.
-Hellenistic kingship remained the dominant political form in the Greek East for nearly three centuries following the death of Alexander the Great. Royal families lived in splendid palaces with elaborate banquet halls and sumptuously decorated rooms and gardens
-Court festivals and symposia held in the royal palaces provided opportunities for lavish displays of wealth
-Hellenistic kings became prominent patrons of the arts, commissioning public works of architecture and sculpture, as well as private luxury items that demonstrated their wealth and taste
-Jewelry, for example, took on new elaborate forms and incorporated rare and unique stones
-Increased commercial and cultural exchanges, and the greater mobility of goldsmiths and silversmiths, led to the establishment of a koine (common language) throughout the Hellenistic world
-Hellenistic art is richly diverse in subject matter and in stylistic development
-Hellenistic artists copied and adapted earlier styles, and also made great innovations. Representations of Greek gods took on new forms
-Image of a nude Aphrodite, for example, reflects the increased secularization of traditional religion
-Prominent in Hellenistic art are representations of Dionysos, the god of wine and legendary conqueror of the East, as well as those of Hermes, the god of commerce
-Eros, the Greek personification of love, is portrayed as a young child
-Immediate results of the new international Hellenistic milieu was the widened range of subject matter that had little precedent in earlier Greek art
-Representations of unorthodox subjects, such as grotesques, and of more conventional inhabitants, such as children and elderly people
-Portraits of ethnic people, especially those of Africans, describe a diverse Hellenistic populace
-Increasingly affluent consumers were eager to enhance their private homes and gardens with luxury goods, such as fine bronze statuettes, intricately carved furniture decorated with bronze fittings, stone sculpture, and elaborate pottery with mold-made decoration
-Avid collectors of Greek art, however, were the Romans, who decorated their town houses and country villas with Greek sculptures according to their interests and taste
-Wall paintings from the villa at Boscoreale, some of which clearly echo lost Hellenistic Macedonian royal paintings, and exquisite bronzes (1972.118.95) in the Metropolitan Museum's collection testify to the refined classical environment that the Roman aristocracy cultivated in their homes
-Rome was a center of Hellenistic art production, and numerous Greek artists came there to work
-Conventional end of the Hellenistic period is 31 B.C., the date of the battle of Actium. Octavian, who later became the emperor Augustus, defeated Marc Antony's fleet and, consequently, ended Ptolemaic rule
-Ptolemies were the last Hellenistic dynasty to fall to Rome