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List four examples of types of microorganisms.

viruses,fungi,protozpa,animal parasites, bacteria

what are heterotrophs?

name given to the organism that uses organic or living substances for food

List five examples of how microorganisms can enter the body.

eyes, mouth, nose, ears, break in skin

List four examples of what would make a host more susceptible to infection(entrance of pathogen).

poor health, poor hygiene, stress, poor nutrition

What are five protective devices of the body that prevent the entrance of microorganisms.

skin, mucus membrane,mucus/cilia in the nose,coughing and tears

Explain the difference in RESIDENT flora and TRANSIENT flora.

Resident lives and grows in the deeper layers of the skin (dermis). Transient lives and grows on the superficial skin layers (epidermis)

List three examples of when alochol-based hand rub may be used to sanitize the hands.

not visibly soiled, before contact w/patient, before/after using gloves

List four guidelines that must be followed with respect to biohazard sharps containers.

1- must be closable 2-puncture resistant 3-leakproof 4-Never reach into a sharps container

What should you do when a sharps container in the exam room becomes full?

empty immediately

How should you prepare regulated medical waste for pickup by a medical waste service?

place bio hazard bags and containers in receptacle provided by the MWS. Box should be securely sealed with packing tape and biohazard warning label on two opposite sides of the box/receptacle.

How should regulated medical waste be stored while waiting for pickup by the MWS?

Should be in a locked room inside facility or in a locked collection container outside the facility for P/U. This to help prevent unauthorized access to items such as needles/syringes.

What information is included on a RMW tracking form?

type/quantity(weighed in lbs.) of waste and where it is being sent.

What side effects may occur after the administration of a hepatitis B vaccine?

Soreness at injection site.More serious symptoms are possible but rare.

What postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) is recommended for an unvaccinated individual who has been exposed to Hep B?

the administration of a passive and active immunizing agent

What are the symptoms of acute viral hep.B in individuals who have symptoms?

1/3 of the people are asymptomatic.Others may experience mild flu-like symp., some symptoms are so severe that hospital visit may be required . Fatigue, headache, malaise, nausea, vomiting,and muscle/join pain may be possible.

what are some of the symp. of acute HIV infection?

fever, fatigue, losss of app.,diarrhea,myalgia, arthralgia and adenopathy

How does one determine what type of physical or chemical agent to use to destroy microorganisms on an article?

It depends on what the article was used for.

What are two diseases that are caused by bacteria that produce spores?

1) clostridium botulinum -botulism-
2)clostridium tetani -tetanus-

What should be included in a MSDS (Material Safety Date Sheet)?

1) Identification (name/brand name/manufacturer)
2) composition on ingredients
3)Phys./chem. prop.
4)fire/explosion date
5)reactivity data
6)health hazard data
7)emergency first aid procedures
8)precautions for safe handling and use
9)control measures

What info should be included on a hazardous chemical label?

name of chemical, manufacturer info., phys./health hazard of material, safety precautions, storing/handling/disposal of chem.

What is the purpose of sanitizing??

reduces the microorganism count to a safe level

What is the definition of a high-level disinfection?

this destroys all microorganisms with the exception of spores. This is used for semi-critical items

What level disinfection would a flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscope require?

high-level disinfection

What is the common pressure/temperature used to sterilize materials with the autoclave?

15 lbs. of pressure/ 250 degree Fahrenheit

What are two examples of items that can be disinfected by an intermediate level disinfection?

Stethoscope, BP cuff

Walls and exam tables are two examples of what level of disinfection?


What is the purpose of the pressure used in an autoclave?

it functions to attain a higher temp. than could be achieved by steam alone.

why is it important for all air to be removed from the autoclave during the sterilization process?

Air reduces the temp.

What are three common materials used for wrapping?

1) paper

What is event-related sterility?

When a wrapped article is crushed, compressed or dropped ; the sterility of the contents can not be assumed to be sterile still and the must be rewrapped and resterilized.

How does the medical manufacturing industry use ethylene oxide gas sterilization?

used for heat sensitive articles.


A microorganism that needs oxygen in order to live and grow


A microorganism that grows best in the absence of oxygen


An agent that inhibits the growth of or kills microorganisms


Free from infection or pathogens

Bloodborne pathogens

Pathogenic microorganisms capable of causing disease that are present in the blood


Slinder, hairlike processes that constantly beat toward the outside to remove microorganisms from the body


To soil or to make impure

Exposure incident

A specific eye, mouth, other mucous membrane, nonintact skin, or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that results from an employee's duties

Hand hygiene

The process of cleaning or sanitizing the hands


The condition in which the body, or part of it, is invaded by a pathogen


A microscopic plant or animal

Nonintact Skin

Skin that has a break in the surface


A microorganism that does not normally produce disease

Occupational Exposure

reasonably anticipated skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact with bloodborne pathogens or other potentially infectious materials that may result from the performance of an employee's duties

Opportunistic Infection

An infection resulting from a defective immune system cannot defend the body from pathogens normally found in the enviroment

Optimal Growth Temp

The temp. at which an organism grows best


A disease-producing microorganism


The degree to which a solution is acidic or basic

Postexposure propholaxis

Treatment administered to an individual after the exposure to an infectious disease to prevent the disease

Regulated Medical Waste

Any waste containing infectious material that may pose a threat to health and safety

Reservoir host

the organism that becomes infected by a pathogen and also serves as a source of transfer of pathogens to others.


Easily affected; lacking resistance

Transient Flora

Microorganisms that reside on the superficial skin layers and are picked up in the course of daily activities

Georgia Poison Control Number



A substance that kills disease-producing microorganisms but not their spores (usually applied to living tissues)


an apparatus for the sterilization of materials, using steam under pressure


to soil, stain or pollute; to make impure

critical item

an item that comes in contact with sterile tissue or vascular system


the use of physical or chemical means to remove or destroy pathogens on an item so that it is no longer capable of transmitting disease, making it safe to handle


an agent that cleanses by emulsifying dirt and oil


an agent used to destroy pathogenic microorganisms but not their spores (usually applied to inanimate objects)

Hazardous chemical

any chemical that presents a threat to the health and safety of an individual coming into contact with it


to provide conditions for growth and development


the articles that are being sterilized


a sheet that provides information regarding a chemical and it's hazards, and measures to take to avoid injury and illness when handling the chemical

noncritical item

an item that comes into contact with intact skin but not mucous membranes


a process to remove organic matter from an article and to lower the number of microorganisms to a safe level as determined by public health requirements

semicritical items

an item that comes into contact with nonintact skin or intact mucous membranes


a hard, thick-walled capsule formed by some bacteria that contains only the essential parts of the protoplasm of the bacterial cell


the process of destroying all forms of microbial life, including bacterial spores


easily affected or changed by heat

Infection Process Cycle

1.) Reservoir Host 2.) Means of Exit 3.) Means of Transmission 4.) Means of Entry 5.) Susceptible Host

Growth Requirement for Microorganisms

1) Proper Nutrition 2) Oxygen 3) Temperature 4) Darkness 5) Moisture 6) pH


Other Potentially Infectious Materials

Exposure Control Plan (ECP)

a written document stipulating the protective measures that must be followed in that medical office to eliminate or minimize employee exposure to bloodborne pathogens and other potentially infectious materials.

Personal Protective Equipment

is clothing or equipment that protects and individual from contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials.

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