BZ-310 Chapter 3 Vocab Set (vocab only)
Terms in this set (35)
the study of the various types of energy transformations that occur in living organisms.
the conveyance of energy from one electron (a donor) to another (a receptor), at the same time that the class of energy changes
Reactions that are thermodynamically favorable, capable of occurring without any input of external energy.
reactions releasing heat under conditions of constant pressure and volume.
reactions gaining heat under conditions of constant pressure and volume.
A measure of the relative disorder of the system or universe associated with random movements of matter; because all movements cease at absolute zero, this measure is only zero at that temperature.
reactions that are thermodynamically favorable, possessing a negative delta G value.
reactions that are thermodynamically unfavorable, and cannot occur spontaneously, possessing a positive delta G value.
The vitally important protein catalyst of cellular reactions.
The non protein component of an enzyme, it can be either inorganic or organic.
An organic, non-protein component of an enzyme.
Law of mass action
the rate of any chemical reaction is proportional to the product of the masses of the reacting substances, with each mass raised to a power equal to the coefficient that occurs in the chemical equation
equilibrium constant (Keq)
The ratio of product concentrations to reactant concentrations when a reaction is at equilibrium
In enzyme kinetics, the value equal to the substrate concentration present when reaction rate is one half of the maximal velocity.
branch of chemistry concerned with the rates of change in the concentration of reactants in a chemical reaction.
The initial velocity at the theoretical saturation point
maximum number of molecules of substrate that can be converted to product by one enzyme molecule per unit time.
An enzyme inhibitor that binds tightly, often covalently, thus inactivating the enzyme molecule permanently
An enzyme inhibitor that that competes with substrate molecules for access to the active site.
An enzyme inhibitor that that does not bind at the same site as the substrate, and so the level of inhibition depends only on the concentration of the inhibitor.
The total of the chemical reactions occurring within a cell.
A series of chemical reactions that results in the synthesis of an end product important to cellular function.
A metabolic pathway in which relatively complex molecules are broken down into simpler products.
A metabolic pathway resulting in the synthesis of relatively complex products
The process through which an atom loses one or more electrons to another atom, in which the atom gaining electrons is considered to be reduced.
The process through which an atom gains one or more electrons from another atom, in which the atom losing electrons is considered to be oxidized.
The substance in a redox reaction that becomes oxidized, causing the other substance to become reduced
The substance in a redox reaction that becomes reduced, causing the other substance to become oxidized.
The first pathway in the catabolism of glucose, it does not require oxygen and results in the formation of pyruvate.
a cycle of enzyme-catalyzed reactions in living cells that is the final series of reactions of aerobic metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fatty acids, and by which carbon dioxide is produced, oxygen is reduced, and ATP is formed.
An anerobic metabolic pathway in which pyruvate is converted to another molecule, often lactate of ethanol, and NAD+ is regenerated for use in glycolysis.
A coenzyme that occurs in many living cells and functions as an electron acceptor. It is used alternately with NADH as an oxidizing or reducing agent in metabolic reactions.
reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) used in a number of reductive synthesis such as fatty acids and steroids. Cells reservoir of this represents its reducing power.
An enzyme that transfers phosphate groups to other proteins, often having the effect of regulating the activity of the other proteins.
A mechanism to control metabolic pathways where the end product interacts with an enzyme in the pathway, resulting in inactivation of the enzyme.