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PADO Ch. 1 - Types of Apparatus

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What are some functions of fire department pumpers?
A. Provide water at an adequate pressure for fire streams

B. Are regulated by NFPA® 1901 Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus

C. Must have a minimum pump capacity of 750 gpm
(3 000 L/min); pumps larger than 750 gpm (3 000 L/min) are found in increments of 250 gpm (1 000 L/min)

D. Must have intake and discharge pump connections, pump and engine controls, gauges, and other components to allow the driver/operator to use the pump

E. Must be equipped with a variety of hose sizes and types
1. Intake hose
2. Supply hose
3. Attack hose

F. May include various types of equipment
1. Ground ladders
2. Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA)
3. Rescue/extrication tools and equipment
4. Forcible entry tools and equipment
5. Salvage tools and equipment
6. Portable water tanks
7. First aid/medical equipment

G. May be combined with the functions of a rescue company to form a rescue pumper, an apparatus carrying larger than standard amount of rescue and extrication equipment
What are the minimum pump capacities of fire department pumpers?
Minimum pump capacity of 750 gpm
(3 000 L/min)

Pumps larger than 750 gpm (3 000 L/min) are found in increments of 250 gpm (1 000 L/min)
What are minimum requirements of fire department pumpers?
Intake and discharge pump connections

Pump and engine controls

Gauges

Other components that allow the driver/operator to use the pump
What are some of the variety of hoses and types required on fire department pumpers?
Intake hose

Supply hose

Attack hose
What are the minimum equipment requirements for fire department pumpers?
1. Ground ladders
2. Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA)
3. Rescue/extrication tools and equipment
4. Forcible entry tools and equipment
5. Salvage tools and equipment
6. Portable water tanks
7. First aid/medical equipment
What are various types of pumpers?
Industrial pumpers with foam capability

Municipal pumpers with foam capability

Pumpers with elevating water devices

Initial attack fire apparatus

Minipumpers

Midipumpers
What are (nine) characteristics of industrial pumpers with foam capability ?
1. Are large-capacity foam pumpers, manned by the site fire brigade
2. Are primarily intended to produce large quantities of foam solution to attack Class B fires and suppress vapors in spills
3. Are built according to the standard provided in Chapter 11 of NFPA® 1901
4. May be equipped with around-the-pump, direct injection, balanced pressure foam proportioning systems, compressed-air foam systems (CAFS), or a combination of these
5. May have CAFS in addition to, not instead of, a proportioning system
6. Use some form of balanced pressure proportioning system because of the reliability of the foam proportioning at large flows
7. Are equipped with fire pumps that range in capacity from 1,000 to 3,000 gpm (4 000 L/min to 12 000 L/min) or greater
8. Most have large foam concentrate tank on board, ranging from 500 to 1,500 gallons (2 000 L to 6 000 L) of concentrate
9. Are typically equipped with a large fixed foam/water turret capable of flowing the entire capacity of the fire pump
What are (four) characteristics of municipal pumpers with foam capability?
1. Some may be equipped with fixed Class A and/or Class B foam systems
a. Class A foams and foam system (including CAFS) are used on the standard types of fires to which municipal firefighters commonly respond; Class B foam systems allow the firefighters to handle small-scale flammable/combustible liquids fires and spills.
b. Class A foam systems installed on municipal fire apparatus may be high-energy or low-energy types.
2. Have foam proportioning systems that are typically scaled-down versions of those described for industrial apparatus
3. Range from 20 to 100 gallons (80 L to 400 L)
4. Are designed so that they can be refilled with 5 gallon (20 L) containers when necessary
What are (three) characteristics of pumpers with elevating water devices?
1. Provide a means for discharging fire streams from elevated nozzles
2. Can be used to apply fire streams to the lower floors of a building
3. Range in height from 50 to 75 feet (15 m to 23 m)
What are (two) characteristics of initial attack fire apparatus?
1. Are basically scaled-down versions of the fire department pumpers previously described
2. Are built according to the standards contained in Chapter 6 of NPFA® 1901
3. Types
a. Minipumpers
b. Midipumpers
What are (eight) characteristics of minipumpers?
1. Are smaller, quick-attack pumpers
2. Are designed to handle small fires that do not require the capacity or personnel needed for a larger pumper
3. Enable a fire department to initiate an attack more quickly on small fires or fires in remote locations than can be initiated using full-size pumpers
4. Many are equipped with four-wheel drive that allows them to be effectively driven over off-road terrain or in snow
5. Are most often mounted on one-ton chassis with custom-made bodies or modular units
6. Most have pumps with a capacity of no larger than 500 gpm (2 000 L/min), although some may have pumps rated up to 1,000 gpm (4 000 L/min)
7. Carry most of the same equipment carried on a larger pumper, but in smaller numbers; some may also carry basic medical and extrication equipment
8. Are able to get into small spaces to set up a master stream
What are characteristics of midipumpers?
1. Are well suited for such small fires as grass and trash bin fires and for service calls that do not require the capacity and personnel of a larger pumper
2. Have the ability to start an initial attack on larger fires
3. Are built on a chassis usually over 12,000 pounds (5 443 kg) Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW)
4. Are routinely equipped with pumps as large as 1,000 gpm (4 000 L/min)
5. Typically carry the same type of equipment as a full-size pumper
a. Hose
b. Ground ladders
c. Other fire-fighting equipment
d. May carry emergency extrication and medical equipment
What are the differences between minipumpers and midipumpers?
a. Size
b. Pump capacity
c. Amount of equipment carried
What are characteristics of mobile water supply apparatuses?
A. Also known as water tenders or tankers

B. Are used to transport water to areas beyond a water system or to areas where water supply is inadequate

C. Have water tanks that are larger than those generally found on standard pumpers

D. Are designed to meet Chapter 7 of NFPA® 1901

E. Must carry at least 1,000 gallons (4 000 L) to be considered a mobile water supply apparatus (according to NFPA® 1901)

F. Are limited to 1,500 gallons (6 000 L) or less for single rear-axle vehicles; for tank capacities greater than 1,500 gallons (6 000 L), tandem rear axles, tri-axles, or a tractor-trailer design should be considered

G. Are used as support vehicles for pumpers that are attacking a fire
1. As a reservoir or "nurse tanker/tender" for some fires
2. In a water shuttle operation — Some apparatus use a built-in vacuum pump that expels the air from inside the water tank so that water from a static supply can be drawn into the tank, reducing the amount of time needed to refill the water tank, and increasing the efficiency of water shuttle operations
What factors play into choosing the size of a water tank?
1. Terrain — The mobile water supply apparatus may be required to climb steep hills or to operate on winding roads
2. Bridge weight limits — Bridges in the fire department's normal response district may be too old or may not be designed to bear the weight of heavy mobile water supply apparatus. This presents a danger to firefighters as they drive over these bridges if alternate routes are not available.
3. Monetary constraints — The fire department may not have enough money to purchase a large mobile water supply apparatus.
4. Size of other mobile water supply apparatus in the area — Water shuttles flow more easily when mobile water supply apparatus of the same or similar size are used.
What are construction requirements of mobile water supply apparatuses?
1. Adequate but reasonable water tank capacity
2. Adequate filling rate
3. Adequate dump time
4. Adequate suspension and steering
5. Properly sized chassis
6. Properly sized engine for tank size and terrain
7. Sufficient braking ability
8. Proper tank mounting
9. Proper and safe tank baffling
10. Adequate tank venting system
11. Ability to dump water from either side or the rear of the apparatus
What are characteristics of wildland fire apparatuses?
A. Are lightweight, highly maneuverable vehicles that can go places inaccessible to larger apparatus

B. Are usually built on a one-ton or larger vehicle chassis, and most have all-wheel drive

C. Most have pump capacities and water tank sizes of less than 500 gallons (2 000 L), although some have tanks in excess of 1,000 gallons (4 000 L)

D. Have the ability to "pump and roll" — A separate motor or a power take-off powers the fire pump, enabling the apparatus to be driven and discharge water at the same time

E. Most carry booster hose, forestry hose, or small diameter attack lines

F. May be equipped with remote-controlled nozzles or ground sweep nozzles

G. May carry Class A foam agents, which are extremely effective in attacking wildland fires and protecting exposures

H. Carry booster tanks that vary from approximately 50 gallons (200 L) on all-terrain vehicles to in excess of 1,000 gallons (4 000 L) on larger apparatus

I. For more information, consult NFPA® 1906, Standard for Wildland Fire Apparatus and the IFSTA Wildland Fire Fighting for Structural Firefighters manual.
What does "pump and roll" mean?
A separate motor or a power take-off powers the fire pump, enabling the apparatus to be driven and discharge water at the same time
What are two different "pump and roll" methods?
1. Method 1 — Firefighters use short sections of attack hose, walking alongside the apparatus (staying in the "black" or burned area) and extinguishing fire as they go
2. Method 2 — Firefighters use nozzles that are remotely controlled from inside the cab
What NFPA standard prohibits firefighters from riding on the outside of the vehicle and discharge water as the vehicle is driven?
NFPA® 1500, Standard on Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health Program
What are the characteristics of aircraft rescue and fire fighting (ARFF) apparatus?
A. Were formerly referred to as crash, fire, rescue (CFR) vehicles

B. Are used to provide immediate suppression of flammable liquid fires and suppression of spill vapors on airport properties

C. May respond off airport property to assist municipal firefighters at large-scale flammable liquid incidents

D. Are required to meet NFPA® 414, Standard for Aircraft Rescue and Fire-Fighting Vehicles

E. General classifications
1. Major fire fighting vehicles
2. Rapid intervention vehicles
3. Combined agent vehicles
Where can you find additional requirements and info pertaining to ARFF apparatuses?
A. Federal Aviation regulations 14 CFR Part 139, Certification of Airports (United States)

B. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Annex 14, International Standards and Recommended Practices, Aerodromes - Aerodrome Design and Operations, Heliports (outside the US)

C. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), AC 150/5220-10, Guide Specifications for Water/Foam Aircraft Rescue and Firefighting

D. IFSTA Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting manual
What are the characteristics of a fire boat apparatus?
A. Are used in waterfront cities to protect docks, wharves, piers, and boats

B. May be a small, high-speed, shallow draft vessel, or may be the size of a river, harbor, or ocean-going tug, depending on duties and area to be covered

C. May be used for ice or water rescue, fire fighting, or relaying water to land-based apparatus

D. May deliver as much as 26,000 gpm (98 420 L/min), but are commonly equipped with individual master stream turrets that discharge 2,000 to 3,000 gpm (8 000 L/min to 11 500 L/min)

E. Some are propelled by water jets or are amphibious (smaller fire boats)

F. Some are powered by marine-type diesel engines (heavy-duty fire boats)
What are some reasons for equipping aerial apparatuses with fire pumps?
1. The apparatus may be operated as a ladder company, engine company, or both, providing the fire department with more flexibility.
2. The apparatus will be capable of supplying its own elevated master stream.
3. The apparatus may be used to extinguish small fires encountered when an engine company is not present.
4. The apparatus may be used to protect itself in high radiant-heat situations.
What equipment defines a quints?
Aerial device
Ground ladders
Fire pump
Water tank
Fire hose
What are characteristics of aerial apparatuses equipped with fire pumps?
1. Will include various sizes of pumps depending on the preference of the local jurisdiction
2. Must have a miniumum pump capacity of 250 gpm (946 L/min) at 150 psi (1 035 kPa), according to NFPA® 1901
a. Departments that are only interested in having the aerial apparatus extinguish small fires or be able to protect itself will specify smaller pumps on their apparatus.
b. Departments wanting the aerial apparatus to have the same capabilities as a standard engine company may specify pumps as large as 2,000 gpm (8000 L/min).
What are ladder tenders?
Ladder tenders are smaller units used on incidents that do not require full-size ladder trucks and thereby reduce the wear and tear on the heavier vehicles
What are characteristics of ladder tenders?
May be equipped with relatively small water tanks, fire pumps, and booster hose that allow them to handle small nuisance fires and some vehicle fires — the water tanks typically do not exceed a capacity of 300 gallons (1 200 L), and the pumps do not produce more than about 300 gpm (1 200 L/min)
What are characteristics of rescue apparatus equipped with fire pumps?
A. Can handle small fires and provide protective hoselines at incident scenes; do not have the fire fighting capabilities of a full-sized fire department pumper

B. Generally have a pump with a rated capacity of 500 gpm (2 000 L/min) or less

C. Usually carry 500 gallons (2 000 L) of water or less

D. May be equipped with foam proportioning systems and a foam concentrate tank

E. Commonly have the fire pump panel located inside one of the compartments; the compartment door will have to be opened in order to access the pump controls, intakes, and discharges
What is electrical power generation equipment used for?
To power floodlights and other electrical tools or equipment that may be required on the emergency scene.
What are characteristics of inverters?
1. Are used on pumpers when the local jurisdiction determines that it is not necessary for the pumper to be able to generate large amounts of power
2. Converts the vehicle's 12- or 24-volt DC current into 110- or 220-volt AC current
3. Are generally capable of providing approximately 1,500 watts (1.5 kW) or more of electric power
4. Are most commonly used to power vehicle-mounted floodlights
5. Advantages — Fuel efficiency and low or nonexistent noise during operation
6. Disadvantages — Small capacities and limited mobility from the vehicle
What are characteristics of portable generators?
1. Are the most common power source used for emergency services
2. Are powered by small gasoline or diesel engines
3. Generally have 110- and/or 220-volt capacities
4. Can be operated in the compartment of the apparatus, or can be carried to a remote location
5. Most are designed to be carried by either one or two people
6. Are designed with a variety of power capabilities, with 5,000 watts (5 kW) of power being the largest
What are characteristics of vehicle-mounted generators?
1. Usually have a larger capacity than portable units
2. Are used to provide power for portable equipment and for providing power for the floodlighting system on the vehicle
3. Can be powered by gasoline, diesel, or propane engines or by hydraulic or power take-off systems
4. Usually have fixed floodlights wired directly to the unit through a switch, with outlets provided for other equipment
5. Generally have 110- and 220-volt capabilities
6. Pumpers commonly have capacities up to 12,000 watts (12 kW), although capacities on rescue vehicles are commonly up to 50,000 watts (50 kW) or more
7. Disadvantage — Can be noisy
What are characteristics of portable lighting?
1. Are used where fixed lights are not able to reach or when additional lighting is necessary
2. Range from 300 to 1,000 watts (0.3 kW to 1 kW)
3. May be supplied by a cord from the power plant or may have a self-contained power unit
4. Usually have handles for safe carrying and large bases for stable setting and placement
5. Some are connected to telescoping stands that eliminate the need for personnel to either hold them or find something to set them on
What are characteristics of fixed lighting?
1. Are mounted to the vehicle
2. Provide overall lighting of the emergency scene
3. Are usually mounted so that they can be raised, lowered, or turned to provide the best possible lighting
4. Are often mounted on telescoping poles that allow movement
5. Some may include electrically, pneumatically, or hydraulically operated booms with a bank of lights
6. Range from 500 to 1,500 watts (0.5 kW to 1.5 kW) per light in the bank of lights
Note: The amount of lighting should be carefully matched with the amount of power available from the power-generating device carried on that vehicle. Overtaxing the power-generating device will give poor lighting, may damage the power-generating unit or the lights, and will restrict the operation of other electrical tools
What are characteristics of hydraulic tools?
A. Are used in most extrication situations due to their wide range of uses, speed, and superior power

B. Receive their power from compressed air, electric motors, two- or four-cycle gas motors, or apparatus-mounted power take-off systems

C. May be portable and carried with the tool

D. May be mounted on the vehicle and supply the tool through long coiled hoses or a hose reel line

Note: Most pumps are not capable of operating the tool at full speed when the hose length between the pump and tool exceeds 100 feet (30 m)
What are the four basic types of hydraulic tools?
1. Spreaders
2. Shears
3. Combination spreader/shears
4. Extension rams
What are some key things to remember about various types of firefighting apparatus?
A. Fire apparatus are classified according to the functions for which they are designed.

B. The minimum design specifications for most pumping apparatus are contained in NFPA® 1901, Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus.
1. Specifications for ARFF vehicles are contained in NFPA® 414.
2. Specifications for wildland fire fighting vehicles are contained in NFPA® 1906.

C. Fire apparatus with water-pumping capabilities range from relatively small initial-attack and wildland apparatus to large tandem-axle and tractor-drawn mobile water supply vehicles.