Attachment Theory (Rene Spitz, John Bowlby, & Mary Ainsworth)
Terms in this set (18)
Attachment Theory - Rene Spitz
Defined Anaclitic Depression as emotional deficiencies that had significant effects on the children's psycho-emotional development.
Symptoms are social withdrawal, weight loss, sleeplessness, and failure to thrive.
Identified three significant principles in the psychological development of children:
Attachment Theory - John Bowlby
Believed that the nature of our attachments with our caregivers is the blueprint for future relationships.
Separation Anxiety - Is first evident between 6 and 8 months of age, when a baby is distressed when separated from his or her primary caregiver.
Stranger Anxiety - Is first manifested at approximately 8 months of age, when a baby distressed by seeing a stranger's face as opposed to the face of a familiar person, such as a child's mother.
Attachment Theory - John Bowlby: 4 Phases
Phases child goes through when he/she experiences prolonged separation from his or her primary caregiver
Child angrily protests when separated from the mother
Child's angry protest are replaced with despair manifested by crying for the mother, which then turns into depression
Child achieves a detached state through repression; this is seen as an adaptive response for most children but, if overused, becomes problematic.
Develops in infant who initially have a supportive and caring mother but who are removed from her care for one reason or another.
Attachment Theory - John Bowlby: Characteristics of Attachment
Believed that there are 4 distinguishing characteristics of attachment.
refers to the desire to be near the people to whom we are attached.
Refers to returning to the attachment figure for comfort and safety in the face of a fear or threat.
is a point of security (usually the mother) from which the child can explore the surrounding environment without fear of abandonment.
Refers to anxiety that occurs in the absence of the attachment figure.
Attachment Theory - Mary Ainsworth: Styles of Attachment
Identified the following styles of attachment
Child' assurance that his/her parent or caregiver will return if they have been temporarily separated.
Child experiences distress when separated and then joy when reunited.
Children with secure attachment to their caregivers will return to seek comfort from them if they are frightened.
Ambivalent Insecure Attachment
Children who become usually distressed when the parent or caregiver leaves.
Maybe the result of a mother figure that is not available when the child is in need; and therefore, the child cannot depend on the mother or caregiver.
Children who tend to avoid being with caregivers or parents.
Do not prefer a caregiver over a complete stranger.
These children may avoid attachment because they may have been abused or neglected.
Disorganized Insecure Attachment
Children may avoid or resist parents
Attachment Theory - Mary Ainsworth: Styles of Attachement
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