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Chemistry Unit 2 Test: Elements, atoms, & Ions
Terms in this set (44)
5 summarized main points of Dalton's Atomic Theory
1. all matter is composed of very small particles called atoms
2. All atoms of a given element are identical
3. atoms cannot be created, destroyed, or subdivided
4. atoms combine with or separate from other atoms
5. atoms combine with each other
demonstrated the existence of electrons by using cathode tube to conduct experiment of gases
discovered the nucleus; used the gold foil experiment
which 2 scientists helped to demonstrate the existence of neutrons (last names)
Rutherford and Chadwick
developed the plum pudding model of the atom
atoms are made up of.....
protons, neutrons, and electrons
the smallest unit of matter in any element
have a positive charge; located in the nucleus of the atom
Have no charge; located in the nucleus of the atom
negative charge; located outside the nucleus
the number of protons is the same as the
the number of electrons is the same as the
number of protons and atomic number
number of neutrons =
mass number - atomic number
isotopes differ because
they have the same number of protons and electrons, but a different number of neutrons
Why aren't the the atomic masses of elements whole numbers?
because the atomic mass is the average of the isotopes of that element
formula to Calculate the average atomic mass of an element and the mass of individual isotopes given the percent abundance.
% x amu /100
describe the significance and arrangement of the periodic table
it organizes the elements by periods by order of increasing atomic number which equals the number of protons
what determines chemical behavior?
the number of electrons
luster, good conductors of heat & electricity, high density, high melting point, Ductile, malleable
solids, can be shiny or dull, ductile, malleable, conduct heat & electricity better than nonmetals but not as well as metals
no luster, poor conductor of heat & electricity, brittle, not ductile, not malleable, low density, low melting point
alkali earth metals
middle (on periodic table)
law of constant composition
A given compound always has the same composition, no matter where it came from
how does a formula describe a compound?
It identifies each type of element and the number of atoms that can be found in each molecule of that compound
nonmetals tend to...
gain electrons (form anions)
metals tend to...
lose electrons (form cations)
how do ions combine to form neutral compounds
they balance each other out
a negative ion/gains electrons
a postive ion/loses electrons
the modern concept of atom structure shows the atom having...
1. a dense center of positive charge (a nucleus)
2. electrons moving around the inside
all the elements in a given column exhibit....
similar chemical properties
the small dense center of positive charge in an ion
the total number of protons and neutrons in the atomic nucleus of an atom
a vertical column of elements having the same valence-electron configuration and similar chemical properties
a representation of a molecule in which the symbols for the element are used to indicate the types of atoms present and subscripts are used to show the relative number of atoms
an atom or a group of atoms that has a net positive or negative charge
Atoms of the same element (the same number of protons) that have different numbers of neutrons. They have identical atomic numbers but different mass numbers.
a compound that results when a metal reacts with a nonmetal to form cations and anions.
a substance with constant composition that can be broken down into elements by chemical processes
alkali earth metals
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