Unit 10 vocab

unit 10 vocab
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cell division
the process in reproduction and growth by which a cell divides to form daughter cells
asexual reproduction
a reproductive process that involves only one parent and produces offspring that are identical to the parent
sexual reproduction
process in which genetic material from two parents combines and produces offspring that differ genetically from either parent
chromosomes
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
chromatin
combination of DNA and protein molecules, in the form of long, thin fibers, making up the genetic material in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell
cell cycle
series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
interphase
cell grows, performs its normal functions, and prepares for division; consists of G1, S, and G2 phases
mitosis
the process by which a eukaryotic cell separates the chromosomes in its cell nucleus into two identical sets
cytokinesis
organic process consisting of the division of the cytoplasm of a cell following karyokinesis bringing about the separation into two daughter cells
prophase
first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the nucleus
centromere
a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape
chromatid
one of two identical strands into which a chromosome splits during mitosis
centriole
one of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nuclear envelope
metaphase
second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
anaphase
the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle
telophase
the final stage of meiosis when the chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle
cyclin
one of a family of closely related proteins that regulate the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
growth factor
a protein that is involved in cell differentiation and growth
apoptosis
programmed cell death
cancer
any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division
tumor
an abnormal new mass of tissue that serves no purpose
embryo
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month
differentiation
process in which cells become specialized in structure and function
totipotent
having the ability to give rise to unlike cells
blastocyst
stage of early development in mammals that consists of a hollow ball of cells
pluripotent
Stem cells with the potential to differentiate into most any type of cell
stem cell
an undifferentiated cell whose daughter cells may differentiate into other cell types (such as blood cells)
multipotent
Adult stem cells that can differentiate into a limited variety of cell types.