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62 terms

Chapter 1 Microbiology

STUDY
PLAY
Microbes/Microorganisms
can't be seen with the unaided eye
Pathogen
disease causing organism
Pathogencity
how easily a microb causes a disease
genus
the first name and is always capitalized and underlined
species
comes after genus not capitalized and is underlined
Nomenclature
genus the species name. named to decribe the organism, honor the reseacher, or decribe the habitat
Bacteria
single celled organisms that don't have anuclear membrane; has a cell wall made of peptidoglycan; binary fission
Chemotherapy
using chemicals to treat disease
antibiotics
medicine that works against bacteria but not viruses
Prokaryotes
greek word meaning 'prenucleus'; bacteria and archaea are classified as this
Archaea
like bacteria but live in extreme condtions and if a specific one of these has a cell wall it is not made of peptidoglycan
Eukaryotes
microbes that have a distinct nucleus that holds genetic material and has a nuclear membrane
Fungi
may be unicellular or multicellular; cell wall made of chitin; contain Mycella; asexual or sexual
Mycelia
hyphae or stocks
virology
study of viruses
Bacteriology
study of bacteria
mycology
study of fungus
Viruses
non-living; DNA or RNA; no antibiotics can kill and very toxic to host cells
Protozoa
unicellular; moves by pseudopods, flagella, or cilla; sexual or asexual
algae
photosynthetic; sexual and asexual; usually unicellularcell walls made of cellulose
Helminthes
parasitic worms with mouths; multicellular
Parasitology
study of both protozoa and parasitic warms
Host
organism infected by pathogen
vector
arthropod or insects that carries organism between hosts
reservoir
continual source of infection (human, animal, or non-living)
Hooke
Coined the word cell (looking at cork)
VanLeewenhoek
found animulecules (in pond water)
Spontaneous Generation
life from nonliving
Needham
after boiling water there was still microbes (because exposed to air)
Redi
Piece of meat expose to air has maggots while meat in sealed has none
Spallanzani
took piece of meat sealed it then took it out and boiled => no microbes but others say because no air
Biogenesis
living from living
Pasteur
used 's' shaped neck on a flask that allowd air but the microbes got caught in the curve. no microrganism so spontainious generation disproved
aseptic techniques
aka not transfering microbe techiniques such as washing hands, disinfecting work surfaces, negative air flow, autoclaving
Pastuerization
heat enough to kill spoilage bacteria (ex. milk)
Fermentation
Microbes (yeast) convert sugar to alcohol
Lister
first Aseptic surgery (using phenol)
Koch Postulate
1. Microogranism isolated from dieased animal 2. microorganism grown in pure culture and identified under scope 3. microb now ejected in healthy animal and this animal also becomes sick 4. microb extracted grown in pur culture and identified again
Pure Culture
taking a sample of an microbe and getting only one out
Koch Postulate exceptions
1. took fastidious-> the requirements to grow are too specific to recreate in lab (ex blood -> sifilis/ viruses) 2. Disease cause by a number of microbes(ex urinary tract infection) 3. microbes produce a number of diseases (ex strep A) 4. ethical issues (ex infecting human with hiv or sifilis)
Jenner
created concept of vaccination/immunity
Vaccine
killed, inactive or attenuated microbes induced artifically aquired immunity
immunity
specific resistance by body's defence against a particular pathogen; 2 types active and passive
Active immunity
you make the anti bodies after having disease or vaccine
Passive immunity
given anitbodies the body doesnt make
Natural active immunity
get disease and body makes antibodies for future attacks by that specific pathogen
Natural passive immunity
get anti bodies from mothers placenta or breast milk.
Artificial active immunity
vaccine given at a doctors office that gets body to make antibodies from future attacks from that specific pathogen
Artificial passive immunity
Rhogam as a prenatial and right after birth precausion has proteins that covers baby cells and hides the cell from mothers leukocytes so it doesnt attack itself.
Immunology
study of immunity
Fleming
discovered Penicillin
Bioremediation
use of microbes to remediate or clean up polutions such as oil spills
Biotechnology
our use of microbes, cells or cell componets to make useful porducts. not natural (ex bioremedeation or sewage treatment or insect pest control)
Recombinant genetic energy
the manipulation of genetic material in vitro by the insertion of gene into the DNA of another species and that species makes the protein
Gene Therapy
use of a virus to insert/replace missing or incorrect gap into human cells (virus is just used to get gene to cells)(ex sickle cell anemia)
normal microbiota/ flora
microbes that colonize a host w/o causing disease
universal precautions
treat all specimen as if they are infected
Mad Cow
caused by prion that are in beef with the disesase. it affects the nervous system and eats holes in the brain as it progresses. silent killer(spongiform encepalitis) no treatment or cure. even if meat cooked cant get rid of
E. coli O157
transmission by bacteria and you get it from uncooked beef, unpasterurized beverages, spinich; symptoms: bloody diarrhea, dehydration, blood in urine, kidney death. you can treat the symptoms
Flesh Eating Strep
bactieria based illness. its a rapidly growing wound and can be treated by antibiotics
HIV/AIDS
caused by virus and travels and transmitted by blood and body fluids so sex needlesprenatally. there are no symptoms for years. there is treatment to delay symptoms. sympotoms include yeast and other infections, pneumonia and sarcoma
Syphillus
bacterial transferred by blood and body fluids. sex and prenatally. 3 symptomatic stages 1. (2 weeks to a month) skin lesions called chanere 2. rash then can lie dormant for years (called latent) 3. tissues suchs as brain, skin liver are affected and also blindness. is only treatable during stage 1 and 2