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12 terms

Chapter 7: Energy for Cells

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coenzymes
the enzymes that carry out oxidation during cellular respiration are assisted by these nonprotein helpers
glycolysis
occurs outside mitochondria in cytoplasm. the breakdown of glucose into 2 molecules of pyruvate
start: 2 ATP per glucose
end: 2 pyruvate & 2 ATP net
preparatory reaction
takes place in the matrix of mitochondria. pyruvate is broken down to a 2-carbon acetyl group carried by coenzyme A
start:1 pyruvate, 1 co enzyme A, 1 NAD+
end: 1 acetyl-coA, 1 NADH, 1 CO2
citric acid cycle
also takes place in matrix of mitochondria. as oxidation occurs, NADH and FADH2 result and more CO2 is. this cycle produces 2 ATP per glucose molecule
substrates: 1 Acetyl-CoA, 3 NAD+, 1 FADH2, 2 ATP
products: 2 CO2, 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 2 ATP
electron transport chain
a series of electron carriers in the cristae of mitochondria
pumps proteins into intermembrane space
electrons donated to oxygen forms water
fermentation
the anaerobic breakdown of glucose, resulting in hte production of 2 ATP per glucose, ensures
that ATP is available for cellular processes
-why? without O2 the pool of NAD+ is used up. **Fermentation recycles NADH to NAD+ allowing more ATP production
-yields less energy than respiration
oxygen deficit
signified by breathing very heavily for a time
respiration
series of metabolic reactions that convert larger energy molecules into smaller ATP molecules
ex: making change from a $100 dollar bill
cristae
inner membrane folds
matrix
where most metabolisms take place
mitochondrial respiration
stages:
1. preparatory reaction
2. citric acid cycle
3. electron transport chain
energy yield from respiration
recover 40% of energy in glucose as ATP
ATP-40%
Heat- 60%