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the enzymes that carry out oxidation during cellular respiration are assisted by these nonprotein helpers


occurs outside mitochondria in cytoplasm. the breakdown of glucose into 2 molecules of pyruvate
start: 2 ATP per glucose
end: 2 pyruvate & 2 ATP net

preparatory reaction

takes place in the matrix of mitochondria. pyruvate is broken down to a 2-carbon acetyl group carried by coenzyme A
start:1 pyruvate, 1 co enzyme A, 1 NAD+
end: 1 acetyl-coA, 1 NADH, 1 CO2

citric acid cycle

also takes place in matrix of mitochondria. as oxidation occurs, NADH and FADH2 result and more CO2 is. this cycle produces 2 ATP per glucose molecule
substrates: 1 Acetyl-CoA, 3 NAD+, 1 FADH2, 2 ATP
products: 2 CO2, 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 2 ATP

electron transport chain

a series of electron carriers in the cristae of mitochondria
pumps proteins into intermembrane space
electrons donated to oxygen forms water


the anaerobic breakdown of glucose, resulting in hte production of 2 ATP per glucose, ensures
that ATP is available for cellular processes
-why? without O2 the pool of NAD+ is used up. **Fermentation recycles NADH to NAD+ allowing more ATP production
-yields less energy than respiration

oxygen deficit

signified by breathing very heavily for a time


series of metabolic reactions that convert larger energy molecules into smaller ATP molecules
ex: making change from a $100 dollar bill


inner membrane folds


where most metabolisms take place

mitochondrial respiration

1. preparatory reaction
2. citric acid cycle
3. electron transport chain

energy yield from respiration

recover 40% of energy in glucose as ATP
Heat- 60%

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