103 terms

AP Language & Composition 2015-16

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Ad Hominem
In an argument, this is an attack on the person rather than on the opponent's idea.
Alliteration
Repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words that are close to one another.
Allusion
A reference to a well-known person, place, or thing from literature, history, etc.
Analogy
Comparison of two similar but different things, usually to clarify an action or a relationship.
Anaphora
Repetition of a word, phrase, or clause at the beginning of two or more sentences in a row. This is a deliberate form of repetition and helps make the writer's point more coherent.
Anecdote
A short, simple narrative of an incident, often used for humorous effect or to make a point.
Antithesis
The presentation of two contrasting images. The ideas are balanced by word, phrase, clause, or paragraph.
Aphorism
A short, often witty statement of principle or a truth about life.
Apostrophe
Usually in poetry by sometimes in prose; the device of calling out to an imaginary, dead, or absent person or to a place, thing, or personified abstraction.
Appeals
Pathos (Emotional appeal)
The aspect of a literary work that elicit sorrow or pity from the audience. An appeal to emotion that can be used as a means to persuade. Over-emotional can be the result of an excess of pathos.
Appeals
Ethos (Ethical appeal)
When a writer tries to persuade the audience to respect and believe him or her based on a presentation of image of self through the text. Reputation is sometime a factor in ethical appeal, but in all cases the aim is to gain the audience's confidence.
Appeals
Logos (Logical appeal)
Appealing to the audience through use of proper reasoning and factual information.
Argumentation
Writing that attempts to prove the validity of a point of view or an idea by presenting reasoned arguments; persuasive writing is a form of argumentation.
Asyndeton
Commas used (with no conjunction) to separate a series of words. The parts are emphasized equally when the conjunction is omitted; in addition, the use of commas with no intervening conjunction speeds up the flow of the sentence.
Caricature
Descriptive writing that greatly exaggerates or distorts, for comic effect, a person's physical features or other characteristics.
Colloquialism
A word or phrase (including slang) used in everyday conversation and informal writing but that is often inappropriate in formal writing.
Diction
Word choice, an element of style; Diction creates tone, attitude, and style, as well as meaning. Different types and arrangements of words have significant effects on meaning. An essay written in academic diction would would be much less colorful, but perhaps more precise than street slang.
Didactic
Writing whose purpose is to instruct or to teach. A didactic work is usually formal and focuses on moral or ethical concerns. Didactic writing may be fiction or nonfiction that teaches a specific lesson or moral or provides a model of correct behavior or thinking.
Epigraph
The use of a quotation at the beginning of a work that hints at its theme.
Epistrophe
Forms the counterpart to anaphora, because the repetition of the same word or words comes at the end of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences.
Euphemism
A more acceptable and usually more pleasant way of saying something that might be inappropriate or uncomfortable
Explication
The art of interpreting or discovering the meaning of a text. Explication usually involves close reading and special attention to figurative language.
Exposition
Immediate revelation to the audience of the setting/other background information necessary for understanding the plot
Figurative Language
Language that contains figures of speech such as similes and metaphors
Freight-Train
Sentence consisting of 3+ short independent clauses joined by conjunctions
Generalization
When a writer bases a claim upon an isolated example and asserts that a claim is certain rather than probable
Hyperbole
Deliberate exaggeration in order to create humor
Inversion
Reversing the customary order of elements in a sentence or phrase
Imagery
Words/phrases that use a collection of images to appeal to one or more of the 5 senses in order to create a mental picture
Invective
An emotionally charged verbally abusive attack
Irony
A situation/statement in which the actual outcome is opposite to what was expected
Dramatic Irony
When a reader is aware of an inconsistency between an inconsistency between a fictional
Jargon
Special language of a profession
Litotes
A type of understatement in which an idea is expressed by negating its opposite
Metaphor
A figure of speech in which one thing is referred to as another
Metonymy
A figure of speech that uses the name of an object, person, or idea to represent something with which it is associated
Synecdoche
A figure of speech in which a part of something is used to represent a whole
Mood
mood is the primary emotional attitude of a work (the feeling of the work; the atmosphere). Syntax is also a determiner of mood because sentence strength, length, and complexity affect pacing.
Motif/Theme
Main theme or subject of a work that is elaborated on in the development of the piece; a repeated pattern or idea
Negative-Positive
Sentence that begins by stating what is NOT true, then ending by stating what is true
Objectivity
an impersonal presentation of events and characters. It is a writer's attempt to remove himself or herself from any subjective, personal involvement in a story. Hard news journalism is frequently prized for its objectivity, although even fictional stories can be told without a writer rendering personal judgment.
Onomatopoeia
The use of words that sound like what they mean.
Oversimplification
When a writer obscures or denies the complexity of the issues is an argument
Oxymoron
A figure of speech composed of contradictory words or phrases
Paradox
A statement that seems to contradict itself but that turns out to have a rational meaning
Parallelism
The technique of arranging words, phrases, clauses, or larger structures by placing them side by side and making them similar in form. Parallel structure may be as simple as listing two or three modifiers in a row to describe the same noun or verb; it may take the form of two or more of the same type of phrases that modify the same noun or verb; it may also take the form of two or more subordinate clauses that modify the same noun or verb.
Parody
A work that ridicules the style of another work by imitating and exaggerating its elements. it can be utterly mocking or gently humorous. It depends on allusion and exaggerates and distorts the original style and content
Pedantic
A term used to describe writing that borders on lecturing. it is scholarly and academic and often difficult and distant
Personification
The attribution of human qualities to a nonhuman or an inanimate obeject
Polysyndeton
Sentence which uses and or another conjunction (with no commas) to separate the items in a series. Polysyndeton appear in the for of X and Y and Z, stressing equally each member of a series. It makes the sentence slower and the items emphatic than in the asyndeton
Red Herring
When a writer raises an irrelevant issue to draw attention away from the real issue
Repetition
Word or phrase used two or more times in close proximity
Rhetorical Question
One that does not expect an explicit answer. It is used to pose an idea to be considered by the speaker or audience
Sarcasm
Harsh, caustic personal remarks to or about someone; less subtle than irony, but more mean-spirited
Satire
A work that reveals a critical attitude toward some element of human behavior by portraying it in an extreme way. Satire doesn't simply abuse (as in invective) or get personal (as in sarcasm). Satire targets groups or large concepts rather than individuals
Simile
A figure of speech that uses like, as, or if to make a direct comparison between two essentially different objects, actions, or qualities
Speaker
The voice of a work; an author may speak as himself or herself or as a fictitious persona
Stereotype
A character who represents a trait that is usually attributed to a particular social or racial group and who lacks individuality; a conventional patter, expression, or idea
Straw Man
When a writer argues against a claim that nobody actually holds or is universally considered weak. Setting up a straw man diverts attention from the real issue
Style
An author's characteristic manner of expression- his or her diction, syntax, imagery, structure, and content all contribute to style
Syllogism
A form of reasoning in which two statements are made and a conclusion is drawn from them. A syllogism is the format of a formal argument that consists of a major premise, a minor premise and a conclusion
Syntax
The grammatical structure of a sentence; the arrangement of words in a sentence. Syntax includes length of sentence, kinds of sentences (questions, exclamations, declarative sentence, rhetorical questions, simple, complex, or compound)
Tone
The characteristic emotion or attitude of an author toward the characters, subject, and audience (anger, sarcastic, loving, didactic, emotional, etc)
Understatement
The opposite of exaggeration. it is a technique for developing irony and/or humor where one writes or says less than intended
Zeugma
The use of a word to modify or govern two or more words when it is appropriate to only one of them or is appropriate to each but in a different way.
Allusion
He gushed about the city, as if he found Eldoroda.
Analogy
Her mouth was like a megaphone projecting her thoughts, loudly.
Anaphora
She was young. She was smart. She was beautiful.
Anecdote
Family Guy is full of anecdotes, especially when Peter tells a story.
Antithesis
Her face was ugly, but her mind was beautiful.
Aphorism
"People in hell want ice water," said my Mom when I said I wanted new clothes.
Apostrophe
In Romeo and Juliet, Romeo calls out "Juliet" over her dead body
Logos (Logical Appeal)
Seven out of every ten women will be in an abusive relationship before they're thirty.
Ethos (Ethical Appeal)
Trust me, I'm a doctor.
Pathos (Emotional Appeal)
Without your donation, this puppy will die.
Argumentation
My persuasive paper on the death penalty.
Asyndeton
On field day we walked, we ran, we sprinted.
Caricature
His eyes were like the ocean, wild and blue.
Colloquialism
What's up, bro?
Diction
Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard are sweeter
Didactic
...
Epigraph
We are all a lost generation
Epistrophe
For no government is better than men who compose it
Euphemism
Passed away instead of died
Explication
A throng of bearded men is sad colored garments and gray
Exposition
Beginning of Star Wars
Figurative Language
Abbey is 16 and she is foolish, but Kian loves her
Freight-Train
...
Generalization
She was mean therefore all girls that are at Kubasaki are mean
Hyperbole
She is thin as a toothpick
Inversion
How wonderful the weather is today
Imagery
On a starry night where the ocean kissed the southern shore there a dream I never thought would come pass
Invective
...
Irony
...
Dramatic irony
A traffic cop gets a ticket for speeding
Jargon
Head-bathroom
Litotes
They do not seem to be the happiest couple around
Metaphor
He drowned in a sea of grief
Metonymy
The pen is mightier than the sword
Synecdoche
...
Mood
It was a dark and starry night
Ad Hominem
"Alysa wouldn't understand, she's a Catholic."
Alliteration
"Pride & Prejudice" was a good book.