23 terms

Industrial Revolution

Why was the Industrial Revolution a turning point in world history?
The development of new technology that will change industry
Movement of everyone from farms to cities
Technology in: textile industry, communication, transportation
New ways of living
Development of medicines, vaccines, and healthy hospitals
How did an agricultural revolution contribute to a population explosion?
Reduced risk of famine
More food= healthier
What new technologies helped trigger the Industrial Revolution?
Abraham Darby smelt iron using coal
Less expensive, quality iron to make steam engines
James Watt made an efficient steam engine in 1764
Anesthetics reduced pain during surgeries
Telegraph could send messages long distances quickly
Sewing machine-- sewed faster, more productive
Antiseptics killed germs, saved lives
Understand why Britain was the starting point for the Industrial Revolution.
Population growth
Movement of workers to cities to provide labor force
Plentiful resources: ports, rivers, canals, access to sea, coal, iron
Skilled inventors
Accumulated needed capital to start businesses
Stable government
No river tolls
Powerful British Navy
Describe the changes that transformed the textile industry.
In the 1600s, Britain used the putting out system, where families would spin and weave the cotton, and skilled artisans would finish it
Putting out system was to slow, not enough production for increasing population, new inventions would speed it up
Flying shuttle sped up weaving, spinning jenny spun several threads at once, and the water frame used water to power the process
1793- Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin that separated the cotton fibers from the seeds quickly; cotton production increased drastically
Machines doomed putting out system, moved to factories to produce large quantities of goods
Explain the significance of the transportation revolution
England was soon linked by turnpikes that products traveled faster along; it was cheaper to move
Canals were dug to link rivers or connect to ports; stronger bridges and upgrades harbored designed
1763- Bridgewater canal opened; set off canal building frenzy
Railroads did not need rivers, allowing goods to travel efficiently over land
1830- Liverpool to Manchester Railroad created; railroad building boom started
Cycle: More affordable goods produced--> Lower priced greated more consumers--> Greater demand led to new innovations and affordability --> and repeats
Explain what caused urbanization and what life was like in the new industrial cities.
The millions of workers moved from farms and cottage industries to cities; and the rising population
Millions of workers lived in poverty, unsanitary conditions, and overcrowded housing
Changed the distribution of people and labor
Compare and contrast the industrial working class and the new middle class.
Middle class- clean neighborhoods, running water, paved streets, women stayed home: included merchants, inventors, etc admired for hard work
Working class: lived in tiny crowded tenements, lack of sanitation, no sewage system (dumped in rivers and caused disease)
Understand how the factory system and mines changed the way people worked.
The technology of the machine age and the rapid pace of industrialization made a hard life for factory workers
Workers lived in unpleasant conditions, shifts lasted 12-16 hours, some got injured by machines, textile air filled with lint
Women- paid half of that of men, easier to manage, adaptable, created a burden for them, after their shift they returned home to take care of their families
Mines- earned more $, but conditions were more dangerous, coal dust filled lungs, cave-ins floods and explosions were a constant danger, long hours in darkness
Children- child labor acceptable, began work at 7-8 years old, nimble fingered to change threads or crawl places, worked in dust/lint filled rooms, worked in mines doing hard labor
Eventually, factory laws were passes that reduced children's work hours, not work under 8
Inspectors sent to factories to check on factories and labor
Analyze the benefits and challenges of industrialization.
Challenges- pay was low, terrible conditions, and dismal housing
Benefits- workers later gained the vote and political power, wages rose, cost of products and travel dropped
Understand laissez-faire economics and the beliefs of those who supported it.
18th century thinkers such as Thomas Malthus believed that natural laws govern the world of economics
No government interference, "hands-off" : laissez-faire
Adam Smith was popular, most middle class capitalists agreed with his ideas of laissez-faire
The industrial age was an example with no government interference
Divid Ricardo- saw no hope for working class to escape poverty, advised them to be thrifty, work hard, and have less children
Describe the doctrine of utilitarianism.
Utilitarianism- the idea that the goal of society should be the "the greatest happiness for the greatest number of citizens," and that this should be the basis for judging all laws
Jeremy Bentham- believed there should be some government intervention in the economy
Laws should be judged by their utility to benefit people
John Stuart Mill- believed that power should be exercised over someone to prevent the harm to others; saw capitalists hurting workers and gave workers the right to vote
Summarize the theories of socialism.
Socialism: The people as a whole should own and operate the means of production for the general good
Socialists set up communities where work was shared and property was commonly owned; called Utopians
Robert Owen set up a Utopian community to show that mill owners could make a profit and still offer decent wages/conditions
Karl Marx condemned Utopians as unrealistic dreamers
Explain Marx's views of the working class and the response to Marxism.
Marx said that the modern class struggle pitted the bourgeoise (the "haves") against the proletariat(working class).
He predicted that the proletariat would take control of the means of production and set up a classless, communist society.
He thought that a communist society would end the struggles of equal wealth and power
At first, he gained popularity and a social democracy, or a political ideology in which there is a gradual transition from capitalism to socialism instead of a sudden overthrow of the system.
Failure of Marxist governments illustrated his argument's flaws.
Nationalism won out over working class loyalty
List the industrial powers that emerged in the 1800s.
British mechanic William Cockerill opened factories to manufacture spinning and weaving machines
Germany, France, the U.S.
More abundant supplies of coal, iron, and other natural resources than Britain
Were able to follow Britain's lead and borrow British experts/technology
Germany became Europe's leading industrial power
Germany and US thrust their way into industrial leadership
US manufacturing 30% of the world's industrial goods at the time
After 1868, Japan, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand industrialized
Eastern and southern Europe industrialized slowly
Describe the impact of new technology on industry, transportation, and communication.
Henry Bessemer- developed a process to make steel from iron (steel was lighter, harder, more durable, and less expensive)
Alfred Nobel- invented dynamite, an explosive much safer than others used at the time (used for construction and warfare)
Michael Faraday- creator of the first simple electric motor and the first dynamo, a machine that generates electricity
Thomas Edison-made the first electric light bulb allowing city life pace to quicken and work to continue through dark
New methods of production improved efficiency in factories
Interchangeable parts- identical components that could be used in place of one another
Assembly line- parts to a product that moves along a belt from one work station to the next
Automobile- Ford began using assembly line to produce
Orville and Wilbur Wright- designed a flimsy airplane for flight at Kitty Hawk, eventually leading to the invention of the airplane
Telegraph- Samuel Morse, send coded messages over wires by electricity
Alexander Graham Bell patented the telephone
Guglielmo Marconi- invented the radio
Understand how big business emerged in the late 1800s.
Big Business- establishment that is run by entrepreneurs who finance, manufacture, and distribute goods.
Company owners sold stock to investors to get the necessary capital to invest in new technology.
Companies became corporations, or businesses owned by many stockholders.
Sometimes, a group of corporations would join forces and form a cartel, an association to fix prices, to set production quotas, or control markets.
Summarize the impact of medical advances in the late 1800s.
Death rate went down, population went up
Nutrition improved- new methods of farming, food storage, & distribution
Louis Pasteur- Germ theory- certain microbes might cause specific diseases
Robert Koch- identified the bacterium that caused tuberculosis
Better hygiene helped decrease the rate of disease
Hospital care improves- Anesthesia was first used in the 1840s which allowed doctors to experiment with new operations
Florence Nightingale and Joseph Lister worked to improve sanitation and drastically reduce deaths from infection
Describe how cities had changed by 1900.
Growing wealth and industrialization allowed for urban renewal, or rebuilding poor areas of a city
Settlement patterns changed as the rich moved to the outskirts of cities and the poor lived in slums at the center
Cities became safer Electric street lights lit up the night and cities organized police forces
Sewers made cities healthier and skyscrapers made them taller
Cities became attractive- for excitement, promise of work, entertainment
Explain how working-class struggles led to improved conditions for workers.
Formed mutual-aid societies to help sick or injured members
Union membership grew and workers used strikes to demand wage increases and better living conditions.
Government responded to pressure and passed laws to regulate working conditions, limit work hours, improve safety, and ban child labor.
Standard of living (quality and availability of necessities and comforts) rose among workers; ate better, dressed in mass produced clothing, had more time for leisure
Explain what values shaped the new social order.
A new social order: spread of industry upper class (aristocrats & wealthy entrepreneurs), middle class, working class
Middle-class taste and Values:
Strict code of etiquette governed social behavior
Rules dictated how to dress
Parents strictly supervised children- they were to be "seen but not heard"

Ideal Home
Husband's worked, women raised children, directed servants, etc.
Cult of Domesticity- idealizing women and the home
Ideals rarely applied to the working class- women worked for low pay and were expected to manage the home
Understand how women and educators sought change.
Women Work for Rights:
Campaigned for fairness in marriage, divorce, and property laws
Supported the Temperance Movement, or a campaign to limit or ban the usage of alcoholic beverages (for an efficient workforce)
The struggle for political rights, including women's suffrage, or women's right to vote, posed the biggest challenge.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Sojourner Truth were leaders in the movement
Growth of Public Education
Industrialized societies needed literate workers
School was encouraged to make better citizens (reading, writing, rithmatic)
Universities expanded and reformers sought greater educational opportunities for women.
Learn how science challenged existing beliefs.
John Dalton- developed modern Atomic theory showing that each element has its own kind of atoms
Earlier theories put forth the idea that all atoms were basically alike
Ideas of geology show that the Earth had formed over millions of years
Contrary to the long-held biblical belief of earth's origins
Archaeology and fossils supported geology

Darwin & Natural Selection:
Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species, arguing that all forms of life have evolved into their present state over millions of years
Natural selection- natural forces "selected" those with physical traits best adapted to their environment to survive and pass to offspring
Social Darwinism encouraged racism- the idea one racial group is superior to another