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nonmembranous organelles

Cytoskeleton, Microvilli, Centrioles, Cilia, Flagella, Ribosomes

membranous organelles

Mitochondria, Nucleus, Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, Lysosomes, Peroxisomes

plasmella membrane

lipid bi-layer; composed of phospholypids, glycolypids, protein, cholestorol


Lipids, lipid-soluble molecules, and soluble gases (O2 and CO2 ) can pass through the lipid bilayer of the plasmalemma.


Water, small watersoluble molecules, and ions diffuse through membrane channels.

facilitated diffusion

Large molecules that cannot fit through the membrane channels and cannot diffuse through the membrane lipids can only cross the plasmalemma when transported by a carrier mechanism


taking something into the cell


cell drinking


cell eating

receptor mediated endocytosis

ligands bind to receptors allowing flow of specific molicules


Anchor cytoskeleton to integral proteins
• Stabilize the position of membrane proteins
• Anchor plasmalemma to the cytoplasm
• Produce movement of the cell

intermediate filaments

Provide strength
• Stabilize organelle position
• Transport material within the cytosol


Involved in the formation of centrioles, which are
involved in cell reproduction
ex. cilia, flagella

thick filaments

Found in muscle cells: involved in muscle


Both are involved in producing protein
composed of 60% RNA 40% protein

Free ribosomes

float in cytoplasm

attached ribosomes

attached to ER


double membrane
inner membrane contains folds called cristae


contains chromosomes
• Nucleoplasm
• Nuclear envelope
• Perinuclear space
• Nuclear pores
• Nuclear matri

Endoplasmic reticulum

network of hollow tubes

Golgi apparatus

• Synthesis and packaging of secretions
• Packaging of enzymes (modifies protein)
• Renewal and modification of the plasmalemm


contains digestive enzymes
removal of damaged organelles or pathogens


contains degradative enzymes
catabolism of organic componds
neutralization of toxins


DNA wrapped around proteins called histones

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

• Consists of fixed ribosomes
• Proteins enter the E

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

• Synthesizes lipids, steroids, and carbohydrates
• Storage of calcium ions
• Detoxification of toxins

Membrane flow

This is the continuous movement and
recycling of the cell membrane


fluid component of cytoplasm; may contain insoluble matereials


proteins organised in fine filliments of slender tubes


membrains containing extensive microfiliments


membrane extensions containing microtubule doublets in a 9+2 arrangement

communicating junctions

held together by proteins
allow passing of small molecules

adhering junctions

anchor cells together
like a zipper

tight junction

fusion of outer layer of plasmellae
prevent diffusion of fluid between cells

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