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34 terms

anatomy chapter 2 cells

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nonmembranous organelles
Cytoskeleton, Microvilli, Centrioles, Cilia, Flagella, Ribosomes
membranous organelles
Mitochondria, Nucleus, Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, Lysosomes, Peroxisomes
plasmella membrane
lipid bi-layer; composed of phospholypids, glycolypids, protein, cholestorol
diffusion
Lipids, lipid-soluble molecules, and soluble gases (O2 and CO2 ) can pass through the lipid bilayer of the plasmalemma.
osmosis
Water, small watersoluble molecules, and ions diffuse through membrane channels.
facilitated diffusion
Large molecules that cannot fit through the membrane channels and cannot diffuse through the membrane lipids can only cross the plasmalemma when transported by a carrier mechanism
endocytosis
taking something into the cell
pinocytosis
cell drinking
phagocytosis
cell eating
receptor mediated endocytosis
ligands bind to receptors allowing flow of specific molicules
microfilaments
Anchor cytoskeleton to integral proteins
• Stabilize the position of membrane proteins
• Anchor plasmalemma to the cytoplasm
• Produce movement of the cell
intermediate filaments
Provide strength
• Stabilize organelle position
• Transport material within the cytosol
microtubuals
Involved in the formation of centrioles, which are
involved in cell reproduction
ex. cilia, flagella
thick filaments
Found in muscle cells: involved in muscle
contraction
Ribosome
Both are involved in producing protein
composed of 60% RNA 40% protein
Free ribosomes
float in cytoplasm
attached ribosomes
attached to ER
Mitochondria
double membrane
inner membrane contains folds called cristae
Nucleus
contains chromosomes
• Nucleoplasm
• Nuclear envelope
• Perinuclear space
• Nuclear pores
• Nuclear matri
Endoplasmic reticulum
network of hollow tubes
Golgi apparatus
• Synthesis and packaging of secretions
• Packaging of enzymes (modifies protein)
• Renewal and modification of the plasmalemm
Lysosomes
contains digestive enzymes
removal of damaged organelles or pathogens
Peroxisomes
contains degradative enzymes
catabolism of organic componds
neutralization of toxins
chromosomes
DNA wrapped around proteins called histones
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
• Consists of fixed ribosomes
• Proteins enter the E
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
• Synthesizes lipids, steroids, and carbohydrates
• Storage of calcium ions
• Detoxification of toxins
Membrane flow
This is the continuous movement and
recycling of the cell membrane
cytosol
fluid component of cytoplasm; may contain insoluble matereials
cytoskeleton
proteins organised in fine filliments of slender tubes
microvilli
membrains containing extensive microfiliments
cilia
membrane extensions containing microtubule doublets in a 9+2 arrangement
communicating junctions
held together by proteins
allow passing of small molecules
adhering junctions
anchor cells together
like a zipper
tight junction
fusion of outer layer of plasmellae
prevent diffusion of fluid between cells