Grade 9 Canadian Geography Exam
just some study helpers from the "Making Connections" text book
Terms in this set (100)
oldest and longest era : unicellular organisms originated
2nd oldest and 2nd longest era : Appalachains formed, age of amphibians and fish
3rd era (cretacious, triassic, jurassic) : Innuitions formed, firt flowering plants, Rockies started their formation
Recent Life : rockies finnished forming, age of mammals, ice age,
The theory stating the contenants are moving
(Alfred Wegener, 1915)
New theory of moving "plates" powered by the force of convection currents
when plates collide, and one is forced under the other into the mantle. Ussually causes mountains, or rift valleys
hot gooey part of the earth composed of magma
the very center of the earth made up of hot hard metals
very edge of the earth, hard and cool
rock formed by the solidification of molten magma
(ex. Granite and Basalt)
Rock changed in structure by heat, moisture, and pressure
(ex. Marble and Gneiss)
Rock that forms when sediments are compacted and cemented together
(ex. Sandstone and Limestone)
What does LOWERN Stand For?
Nearness to water
How does Latitude affect Climate?
The closer you are to the equator, the hotter the climate
How do Ocean currents affect Climate?
The temperature of the oceans causes the wind that blows over the land to cool or warm
How do Winds affect Climate?
jet streams alter the temperature of the winds to cool or warm the land
How does Elevation affect Climate?
as air rises it cools
How does Releif affect Climate?
ex. Mountains-causes air to cool and condense causing precipitation
Flat prairies- wind carries and travels well
How does Nearness to Water affect Climate?
causes the moderating effect. Water heats and cools slower than the land. So when the land is warm, the water is still cold, cooling the land. And vice versa
to move permanently to another country other than your own native country
to leave your native country to moce permanently somewhere else
What 3 cities in Canada do immigrants typically move to?
Vancouver, Toronto, Montreal
What is a Class 1 immigrant?
an independant immigrant
-Skilled worker (good working potential)
-Buisness immigrant (job offer)
What is a Class 2 immigrant?
a family immigrant (someone who is sponsered by a host)
What is a Class 3 immigrant?
a refugee (someone forced to leave their native country due to persecution, fear of death, etc)
a factor that attracts a person to that country
ex. prefered weather, job offer, presence of family or friends
reasons for leaving your native country
ex.high taxes, war, famine, persecution, bad weather
fishing that takes place within a few kilometres of the shoreline. Small fishing boats go out to sea and return to shore each day only in good weather
commercial fishery done from company owned large boats The boats stay at sea several days before returning to shore with their catch. Boats head out during any weather
Why did the East coast fishery collapse?
-improved fishing technology
-uncontrolled foreign fishing
-destructive fishing practises
-changes in natural conditions
Why did the West coast fishery collapse?
-changes in natural conditions
-lack of salmon treaty
Sustained Yield Management
Use of renewable resource at a rate that alows the resource to renew itself.
ex: The number of fish caught shouldn't be greater than the numbner of fish reaching maturity.
What is the Canadian Sheild?
canadas biggest landform region made of sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks.
What are Canada's Lowlands?
-great lakes/st.lawrence lowlands
-arctic/hudson bay lowlands
What are Canada's Highlands?
a large glacier that spreads out from a central mass of ice
a smaller glacier that forms in mountains
edge of a glacier
steep sided winding ridge of till
a round lake at the base of a glacier
egg shaped hill
melting water off of a glacier
a large bowl shape in the glacier
narrow crest with a sharp ridge
a deep crack in the glacier
A tree that produces its seeds in cones and that has needle-shaped leaves.
A tree that sheds its leaves annually and grows new ones each year.
the ratio of live births in an area to the population of that area
the ratio of deaths in an area to the population of that area
the number of people entering a country each year for every thousand of the population
the number of people leaving a country each year for every thousand of the population
Net Migration Rate
immigration rate - emigration rate
Natural Increase Rate
birth rate - death rate
Population Growth Rate
net migration rate + natural increase rate
persons under the age of 16 and over 64 (the non-working population)
fresh water found underground
Phisical Water Pollution
least harmfull type of pollution
ex. pop can in river
Biological Water Pollution
bacteria and viruses in the water
ex. livestock and sewage waste
Chemical Water Pollution
odorless, tasteless,colourless pollution
ex.pesticides, landfill waste
What are the three types of layers of soil?
in wet climates, minerals and nutrients being brought downwards
in dry climates, minerals are transported upwards by evaporation
Short Grass Prairie
dries sub region of a grassland home to vegetation like cactus, short grasses, sage brush
Long Grass Prarie
dry sub region of a grassland with perfect growing conditions. lots of humus and rainfall. richest soil in canada
transitional sector in a grassland with a miz of vegetation
commercial firms that have developed with or stem out of agriculture
What are some reasons why family farms are being sold?
-kids don't want the farm
-no garunteed pay
-no retirement fund
-long and irregular hours
What are some solutions to stop Erosion on a farm?
-no till cropping
What are some solutions to stop fertilizers from causing eutriphication near a farm?
-use natural fertilizers
What are some replacements for pesticides?
-species specific pesticides
-biological control of pests
The part of forest that has large enough trees and is close enough to market to allow it to be harvested by the forestry industry
part of a forest that has trees too small to harvest or is too far away from the market
when a forest renews itself by natural means
method of forest harvesting in which up to 70% of trees are cut, leaving small patches of old growth standing to provide seed for regeneration
method of forestry in which you cut all the trees in an area down at once
method of forestry which you only cut trees of a certain type, size or quality
What are some threats to Canada's Forests?
-the forestry industry
-air pollution (acid rain)
-aerial spraying of chemicals
to lose your culture and adapt the culture of the larger group within which you live
Schools set up by the government and run by major churches for aboriginal children
Project of Heart
a campaign led by the community to raise awarness of the effects at residential schools.
Lines of Latitude
imaginary lines that run east and west, they tell how far north and south of the equater (also called parallels)
Lines of Longitude
imaginary lines that run north and south on map or globe, they tell how far east and west of the prime meridian ( also called meridians)
90 degrees North
66.5 degrees North
Tropic of Cancer
23.5 degrees North
0 degrees of latiude
Tropic of Cancer
23.5 degrees South
65.5 degrees South
90 degrees South
0 degrees of longitude
180 degrees of longitude
each of the four main points on a compass (north, south, east, west)
intermediate points between the the cardinal points they are NW, SW, NNE, ENE ect.
(also written)a scale on a map in which the scale is stated plainly
(also representative) a scale on a map which is shown as a fraction
(or line scale) a scale on a map that shows the distance per untit of measurement drawn
ex 1 2 3 cm
l l l
4 8 12 km
What are the Time Zones in Canada?
Pacific, Mountain, Central, Eastern, Atlantic, Newfoundland
How many Time Zones are there in the world?
24, each 15 degrees apart
Which direction is farther ahead time wise? (west or east)
(when you move east the time goes forward, when you move west the time goes backwards)
ex. it's 3:00 in Ottawa and 4:00 in Charlottetown
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