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Language Chapter 10: Nervous System Test

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cerebellum
Part of the brain that controls muscular coordination, movement and balance
Dyslexia
Disorder of reading, writing, and learning
Paresthesia
Abnormal sensation of tingling or prickling
Cerebrovascular accident
Cerebral aneurysm, thrombosis, or hemorrhage can be the cause
Axon
part of a nerve cell, branching fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell
Meninges
three protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord
Embolism
obstruction of a blood vessel by a clot or foreign substance, floating clot; mass of material suddenly blocks a blood vessel
Cauda equina
tail end of the spinal cord, collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord
Glial
pertaining to supportive cells of the nervous system
Thalamus
part of the brain that serves as a main relay station
Plexus
large interlacing network of nerve fibers in the peripheral nervous system
Acetylcholine
substance that helps transmit a nervous impulse
Neurasthenia
lack of strength in nerves; sense of weakness and exhaustion
dementia
Loss of mental capacity, mental decline and deterioration
glial cell
Astrocyte is an example
dendrite
First part of the neuron to receive the nervous impulse, branching fiber
parenchyma
Essential, distinguishing cells of an organ
synapse
Space between nerve cells through which a nervous impulse is transmitted
acetylcholine
Neurotransmitter
central nervous system
Brain and the spinal cord
sensory nerve
Carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord
axon
Microscopic nerve fiber that carries impulse from the cell body along the nerve cell
autonomic nervous system
Sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves
myelin sheath
Fatty tissue surrounding and protecting the axon of a nerve cell
oligodendroglia
Glial cell that produces myelin
cerebral cortex
Outer region of the largest part of the brain; composed of gray matter
Aura
peculiar symptoms appearing before more definite symptoms
Palliative
relieving but not curing
Transient ischemic attack
interruption of blood supply to the cerebrum, mini stroke
Occlusion
blockage
Dopamine
neurotransmitter, chemical messenger released at the end of neurons
Glioblastoma multiforme
malignant brain tumor of immature glial cells
Absence seizure
minor form of epileptic seizure
Tonic-clonic seizure
major convulsive epileptic seizure
Meningomyelocele
Spina bifida, congenital defect of the spinal column with herniation of the spinal cord and meninges
cerebral angiography
X-ray record of blood vessels within the brain
cerebral hemorrhage
Breakage of a blood vessel within the brain
multiple sclerosis
Demyelination of tissue around the axons of CNS neurons
cerebral palsy
Paralysis and loss of muscular coordination caused by brain damage in the perinatal period
myasthenia gravis
Elapsing weakness of skeletal muscles ("no muscle strength"); autoimmune condition
hydrocephalus
Collection of fluid in the ventricles of the brain
Parkinson disease
Degeneration of nerves in the brain; occurring in later life and leading to tremors, bradykinesia
Tourette syndrome
Involuntary, spasmodic twitching movements; uncontrollable utterances
Anesthesia
Condition of no nervous sensation
parenchymal
Essential cells of an organ
hypothalamus
Beneath the thalamus; controls appetite, sleep, and the pituitary gland
pia mater
Thin, delicate innermost membrane of meninges
medulla oblongata
Part of the brain that controls respiration, heartbeat, and the size of blood vessels
arachnoid membrane
Middle meningeal membrane; spider-like
pons
Lying between the medulla and the rest of the brain; bridge connecting various parts of the brain
cerebrum
Largest part of the brain
gyri
elevations on surface of cerebellum
radiculitis
Inflammation of a spinal nerve root