Chapter 10: Early Childhood: Psychosocial Development

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

imaginary friends
Make-believe friends who exist only in a child's imagination; increasingly common from ages 3 through 7, they combat loneliness and aid emotional regulation.
authoritarian parenting
An approach to child rearing that is characterized by high behavioral standards, strict punishment of misconduct, and little communication.
neglectful/uninvolved parenting
An approach to child rearing in which the parents are indifferent toward their children and unaware of what is going on in their children's lives.
emotional regulation
The ability to control when and how emotions are expressed.
antipathy
Feelings of dislike or even hatred for another person.
initiative versus guilt
Erikson's third psychosocial crisis, in which children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them.
externalizing problems
Difficulty with emotional regulation that involves expressing powerful feelings through uncontrolled physical or verbal outbursts, as by lashing out at other people or breaking things.
permissive parenting
An approach to child rearing that is characterized by high nurturance and communication but little discipline, guidance, or control. (Also called indulgent parenting.)
gender differences
Differences in the roles and behaviors of males and females that are prescribed by the culture.
Electra complex
The unconscious desire of girls to replace their mother and win their father's romantic love.
authoritative parenting
An approach to child rearing in which the parents set limits but listen to the child and are flexible.
extrinsic motivation
A drive, or reason to pursue a goal, that arises from the need to have one's achievements rewarded from outside, perhaps by receiving material possessions or another person's esteem.
bullying aggression
Unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attack, especially on victims who are unlikely to defend themselves.
antisocial behavior
Actions that are deliberately hurtful or destructive to another person.
Identification
An attempt to defend one's self-concept by taking on the behaviors and attitudes of someone else.
empathy
The ability to understand the emotions and concerns of another person, especially when they differ from one's own.
sociodramatic play
Pretend play in which children act out various roles and themes in stories that they create.
rough-and-tumble play
Play that mimics aggression through wrestling, chasing, or hitting, but in which there is no intent to harm.
psychopathology
An illness or disorder of the mind.
superego
In psychoanalytic theory, the judgmental part of the personality that internalizes the moral standards of the parents.
intrinsic motivation
A drive, or reason to pursue a goal, that comes from inside a person, such as the need to feel smart or competent.
sex differences
Biological differences between males and females, in organs, hormones, and body type.
self-concept
A person's understanding of who he or she is, in relation to self-esteem, appearance, personality, and various traits.
psychological control
A disciplinary technique that involves threatening to withdraw love and support and that relies on a child's feelings of guilt and gratitude to the parents.
internalizing problems
Difficulty with emotional regulation that involves turning one's emotional distress inward, as by feeling excessively guilty, ashamed, or worthless.
reactive aggression
An impulsive retaliation for another person's intentional or accidental action, verbal or physical.
phallic stage
Freud's third stage of development, when the penis becomes the focus of concern and pleasure.
Oedipus complex
The unconscious desire of young boys to replace their father and win their mother's romantic love.
instrumental aggression
Behavior that hurts someone else because the aggressor wants to get or keep a possession or a privilege.
relational aggression
Nonphysical acts, such as insults or social rejection, aimed at harming the social connection between the victim and other people.
prosocial behavior
Actions that are helpful and kind but are of no obvious benefit to oneself.
gender schema
A cognitive concept or general belief based on one's experiences, in this case, a child's understanding of sex differences.
Time-out
A disciplinary technique in which a child is separated from other people for a specified time.
Emotional regulation.
The ability to control when and how emotions are expressed is referred to as:
Protective optimism.
Preschoolers predict that they can solve impossible puzzles or control their dreams. These naive predictions are called:
Were less likely to draw.
In an experiment by Lepper and colleagues (1973), children who received an expected award for drawing:
4 or 5
By the age of ___, children are less likely to throw temper tantrums.
Attacking other people; being withdrawn
An example of an externalizing problem is____ and an example of an internalizing problem is ____.
Onlooker.
A kind of play identified by Mildred Parten is:
Rough-and-tumble.
Play that mimics aggression, but with no intent to harm, is:
Expectations for maturity.
Baumrind's dimension in which parents vary in standards for responsibility and self-control in their children is called:
They have high nurturance.
Which of the following is TRUE concerning permissive parents?
Parental discipline methods are LESS important than parental warmth, support, and concern are.
Multicultural research on parenting styles and their effects on children has found that:
Encourage empathy.
A parent might ask a child, "How would you feel if someone did that to you?" to:
The Oedipus complex.
Freud postulated that young boys have an unconscious desire to replace their fathers and win their mother's exclusive love. He called this:
Superego.
In psychoanalytic theory, the judgmental part of the personality that internalizes the moral standards of the parents is:
Cognitive theory
Which theory of gender differences focuses primarily on children's understanding?
Psychological control.
A discipline technique that may damage a child's initiative, social acceptance, and math achievement is:
Emotional regulation
Children who master _____ have learned when and how to express emotions.
Initiative versus guilt.
Erik Erikson's third developmental stage—the stage during which pride emerges—is called:
"Shame"
______ refers to people's feeling that others blame them or disapprove of them.
Psychopathology.
An illness or disorder of the mind is referred to as:
Younger and older children, cultures, and girls and boys.
Emotional regulation differs between:
Emotional regulation, empathy, and social understanding
Peers provide practice in:
Explore and rehearse social roles, practice regulating their emotions, and develop a self-concept in a nonthreatening context.
Sociodramatic play allows children to:
Baumrind.
Many researchers have traced the effects of parenting on child development, but the researcher whose findings continue to be very influential is:
Permissive.
Parents who have low expectations for maturity and rarely discipline their children are characterized by Baumrind as:
Their parents watch with them and reinforce the lessons.
Some children may learn basic literacy from educational programs if:
Empathy
Which one of the following terms refers to a true understanding of the feelings and concerns of another person?
Antisocial behavior.
Johnny, age 6, suddenly makes an angry face at Alan and kicks him hard for no apparent reason. Johnny is displaying:
Sex differences.
Biological differences between males and females are referred to as: