BMS 107 Study Guide #1
Terms in this set (66)
Describe the basic hierarchy of structure of the human body (from atoms to organism) and of what each level is comprised
Atoms --> Molecules --> Cells --> Tissues --> Organs --> Organ Systems --> Organism
3. What are the 3 basic tenets (statements) of the cell theory? Name 2 scientists involved in the early development of the cell theory.
1. All living things are made of cells.
2. Cells only arise from pre-existing cells by division (not spontaneous generation).
3. Cells are made of similar compounds with similar characteristics and biochemistries.
-Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann
Name 2 scientists known for their early observations of cells; called the "father of microscopy" and the "father of microbiology."
"Father of microscopy"= Robert Hooke
"Father of microbiology"= Antony Van Leeuwenhoek
What is an organelle?
Tiny structures within a cell that perform specific cellular functions
How does a prokaryotic cell differ from a eukaryotic cell?
Eukaryotic Cells= Membrane bound organelles. Multicellular
Prokaryotic Cells= No membrane bound organelles. Typically unicellular
What is the function of each of the following organelles: cell membrane, cell nucleus, rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosome, mitochondria, cell cytoskeleton (3 fiber types)
Cell Membrane= Forms the outer barrier of the cell. Contains receptors
Nucleus="Control Center" for genetic information
Rough ER= Synthesizes proteins and lysosomal enzymes
Smooth ER= Synthesizes lipids and metabolizes carbohydrates
Golgi Apparatus= Modifies, packages, and sorts newly synthesized proteins
Lysosome= Digest waste products in the cell
Mitochondria= Synthesizes ATP during cellular respiration
Cytoskeleton= Structural support and facilitates streaming, motility, and transport of cytoplasm (filamentous proteins)
-3 Fiber types: Microfilaments, Intermediate Filaments, and Microtubules
What is the difference between passive and active transport?
Passive= Movement without the expenditure of energy down concentration gradient.
Active= Movement with the expenditure of energy against concentration gradient.
What are the three types of passive diffusion?
Simple Diffusion= Small or polar molecules move readily
Facilitated Diffusion= Large or insoluble molecules move using required protein transporters
Osmosis= Simple water movement
10. What are the two major types of active transport?
1. Ion Pumps
2. Bulk Transport (endocytosis/ exocytosis for macromolecules)
What is the difference between cellular hypertrophy, hyperplasia and atrophy?
Cellular Hypertrophy= an increase in the size of existing cells
Hyperplasia= an increase in number of cells in a tissue
Atrophy= shrinkage of tissue by cell size or number
What are the 4 different types of primary tissues in humans
Epithelial Tissue= covers exposed surfaces
Connective Tissue= protection, support, and interconnections
Muscle Tissue= movement
Nervous Tissue=conductors for communication
What are the basic characteristics of epithelial tissue?
Highly cellular, Polar, Attached (connective tissue), Avascular (lacks blood vessels), Innervated (nervous tissue), Regeneration
How is epithelial tissue classified
Cell Layer: Simple= One layer thick, Stratified= Several Layers, Pseudostratified= simple but looks stratified
Cell Shape: Squamous= Flat, Cuboidal= Cube shape, Columnar= Column shape, Transitional= Changes
What type of epithelial tissue 1. lines blood vessels and air sacs within the lungs? Forms many glands and kidney tubules? 2. Lines the bronchioles of lungs and digestive tract? 3. On skin surface? 4. Is found in the urinary bladder? 5. Lines the respiratory tract?
1. Simple Squamous Epithelium
2. Simple Columnar Epithelium
3.Stratified Squamous Epithelium
5. Pseudostratified Columnar
Name the 3 types of muscles.
Smooth muscle, Cardiac Muscle, and Skeletal Muscle
What are the 2 components of nervous tissue
1. Individual nerve cells = neurons
2. Support cells = glial cells
What are the 4 types of membranes found in the body? Which contains goblet cells? Which produces serous fluid?
1. Mucous membranes (Goblet cells)= Lines external membranes
2. Serous membranes (Serous fluid)= Lines internal membranes
3. Cutaneous membranes (Skin)= at body's surface
4. Synovial membranes (joints)
Name the 3 types of serous membranes
1. Pleura (Lungs)
2. Pericardium (Heart)
3. Peritoneum (Abdominopelvic)
How does compact bone differ from spongy bone? What are the trabeculae?
Compact Bone: dense bone forming the walls of the diaphysis - made of osteons. External
Spongy Bone: more porous and contains trabeculae and found near the epiphyses. Internal. Vascular
-Trabeculae= open lattice of narrow plates of bone
How does yellow bone marrow differ from red bone marrow?
Red bone marrow= Connective tissue that produce blood cells. Located in spongy bone and medullary cavity of the bones in children
Yellow bone marrow= Fatty tissue formed by degenerated red bone marrow in adults
From what is the matrix of bone formed?
1/3 Organic: cells, collagen fibers, and ground substance (semisolid material that supports collagen fibers)
2/3 Inorganic: calcium phosphate (strength), calcium hydroxide, and other salts= Hydroxyapatite
How does the epiphyseal plate differ from the epiphyseal line?
Epiphyseal plate= Layer of hyaline cartilage at the boundary between an epiphysis and the diaphysis.
Epiphyseal line= a remnant of the cartilaginous epiphyseal plate. (Formed when the plate disappears after bone growth)
What is appositional bone growth? What is interstitial bone growth?
Appositional bone growth= Growth at diameter or in thickness
Interstitial growth= Growth length-wise
What effects do exercise and age have on bone density? What is the difference between osteopenia and osteoporosis?
Exercise: bone remodeling which results in the strengthening of the bone
Age: strength decreases due to decreased protein synthesis and thinning occurs due to loss of minerals
Osteopenia= decrease in ossification due to weakening and thinning
Osteoporosis= bone mass reduced enough to point of loss of function
What bones constitute the appendicular skeleton? The axial skeleton?
Appendicular skeleton= Limbs; Axial skeleton= head, neck, and trunk
How many of each vertebrae type? How many ribs? Describe the difference between a true, false and floating rib. How do the ribs articulate with the sternum and the thoracic vertebrae?
Vertebrae: 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, a sacrum (5 fused), and a coccyx
Ribs: 12 pairs; True rib= fixed ribs (connect to sternum); False rib= indirect connection (cartilaginous); Floating rib= loose (connected only to vertebrae)
How many facial bones? How many cranial bones?
14 Facial bones. 8 cranial bones
Describe the skeletal structure of a finger and a toe.
Comprised of metacarpals and phalanges
What structures make up the pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, pelvis?
Pectoral girdle= clavicle and scapule
Pelvic girdle= os coxae
Pelvis= sacrum and coccyx
Describe how upper body weight is transmitted to the ground when standing and when sitting. (name specific skeletal features)
Standing: weight of the head --> atlas --> cervical vertebrae --> thoracic vertebrae --> lumbar vertebrae --> sacrum --> sacroiliac joint --> ischial tuberosity
Sitting: weight of the head --> atlas --> cervical vertebrae --> thoracic vertebrae --> lumbar vertebrae --> sacrum --> sacroiliac joint --> ilium --> acetabulum --> head of femur --> condyles of femur --> condyles of tibia --> talus --> calcaneus.
What is a paranasal sinus and where are they located (there are 4).
Air filled chambers that open into the nasal cavities
List 4 types of diathrotic joints, describing the way in which they move.
1. Ball and socket= multiaxial (hip)
2. Saddle joint= biaxial (thumb)
3. Hinge joint= uniaxial (ulna on humurus)
4. Pivot joint= uniaxial (radius on ulna)
What are 3 functional classifications of joints? How are these different from the structural classifications? Give an example of each.
Structural Classification: Fibrous= dense regular CT (articulation between radius/ulna), Cartilaginous= bones joined by cartilage (pubic symphysis), Synovial Joints= fluid cavity (elbow joint).
Function Classification: Synarthrotic Joint (immovable), Amphiarthrotic Joint (slightly moveable), Diarthrotic Joint (freely moveable)
Describe the ligaments that make up a knee joint and to what bone features those ligaments are attached. What type of injuries can occur from a lateral blow to the knee?
Patellar ligament: from patella to tibial tuberosity
Lateral collateral ligament (LCL): from femur to fibula
-Lateral blow= torn MCL, ACL, and medial meniscus
Medial collateral ligament (MCL): from femur to tibia
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL): from posterior femur to anterior side of the tibia
Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL): from posterior femur to posterior side of the tibia
Differentiate between: flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal rotation, external rotation, pronation and supination.
Flexion= movement in an anterior-posterior plane that decreases the angle between the articulating bones
Extension= movement in an anterior-posterior plane that increases the angle between the articulating bones
Abduction= lateral movement of a body part away from the body midline
Adduction= medial movement of a body part towards the body midline
Internal Rotation= rotation away from the median plane
External Rotation= rotation towards the median plane
Pronation= medial rotation of the forearm so the palm is directed posterior or inferior
Supination= Lateral rotation of the forearm so the palm is directed anterior or superior
What causes a ruptured (or herniated) disc? What structural changes occur in the intervertebral discs?
Occurs when the inner nucleus pulposus protrudes through the outer anulus fibrosus into the vertebral canal. This causes a pinching of the spinal cord/ nerves of the spinal cord.
Describe the structural differences between a typical cervical vertebra, the atlas and the axis.
Cervical vertebrae= contain transverse foramina for veins and arteries supplying the brain
Atlas (C1)= Lacks body and spinous process
Axis (C2)= has dens or "tooth: (like spinous process)
Where is each of the 3 spinal curves? What is lordosis, kyphosis and scoliosis?
Cervical curvature= bowed anterior; Thoracic curvature= bowed posterior, Lumbar curvature= bowed anterior
Lordosis= Inward curvature of the thoracic and lumbar regions
Kyphosis= Outward curvature of the back; Scoliosis= Sideways curvature of the spine
Name the 4 fontanels of the fetal skull.
Frontal fontanele, posterior fontanele, posterolateral fontanele, anterolateral fontanele
Describe how a bone recovers from a fracture. List 5 different types of fractures.
Inflammation and clotting of blood at fracture site --> Bone production (clotted blood replaced with fibrous tissue and cartilage which is replaces with hard bone) --> Bone remodeling (bone compaction and reforming)
-Greenstick fracture, spiral fracture, transverse fracture, commpression fracture, oblique fracture
What bone structures make up the hard palate? The nasal septum?
Hard plate= maxillae and palatine
Nasal septum= vomer and perpendicular plate of ethmoid
What is arthritis? Differentiate between osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis
Arthritis= inflammatory or degenerate diseases of joints
Osteoarthritis= articular cartilage breakdown --> abrasions. Movement becomes stiff and painful
Rheumatoid arthritis= autoimmune disorder in which the immune system targets tissues for attack= inflammation
List 4 functions of the skin. What are the 3 basic layers of the skin?
Functions= Protect the body from mechanical abrasion, Acts as a barrier to microorganisms, Protect the underlying tissues from ultraviolet radiation from the sun and from desiccation, and Thermoregulation
1. Epidermis= superficial/ protective layer
2. Dermis= intermediate skin layer
3. Hypodermis= deepest skin layer
What are the 5 layers of the epidermis in thick skin (from superficial to deep)? In which layer do keratinocytes start to die? Where are melanocytes found in the skin? What is the difference between a basal cell carcinoma and a melanoma?
Stratum Corneum --> Stratus Lucidum --> Stratum Granulosum --> Stratum spinosum --> Stratum Basale
-Keratinocytes start to die in the stratum granulosum.
-Melanocytes are found in the stratum basal.
-Basal cell Carcinoma= slow growing cancer
-Melanoma= cancer of melanocytes
What three pigments determine the color of skin? Which helps protect DNA from UV damage?
Melanin (helps protect DNA from UV light.)
What is keratinized skin? How does thick skin differ from thin skin?
Keratinized skin= dead keratinocytes due to thinning and flattening of the cells
Thick skin= all 5 layers of epidermis and only contains sweat glands (palms/ soles)
Thin skin= missing stratum lucidum layer and contains hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands
Why are desmosomes important to both the structure of the skin and the myocardium of the heart?
If the connecting adjacent epithelial cells of the skin are not functioning correctly, layers of the skin can pull apart and allow abnormal movements of fluid within the skin, resulting in blisters and other tissue damage
What are the 2 layers of the dermis? What type of connective tissue is found in each?
1. Papillary layer= more superficial. Contain areolar CT
2. Reticular layer= more deep. Contain dense irregular CT
Where are the dermal papillae and the epidermal ridges? What are their functions?
Dermal papillae= Superficial of dermis towards the epidermis
Epidermal ridges= Deep projections of epidermis towards the dermis
Function: They interconnect and increase the area of contact between the dermis and epidermis (provides nutrients to epidermis)
What are lines of cleavage with regard to the skin?
Partition the skin and indicate the predominant direction of underlying collagen fibers in the reticular layer of the dermis
What are the 3 microscopic layers of hair and name the 3 types of hairs.
Hair types: 1. Lanugo - downy hair found on fetus in the last trimester of development.
2. Vellus - fine, unpigmented hair found on the face and in children.
3. Terminal hair - coarser, pigmented and longer than vellus hair. Found on the scalp, eyebrows and eyelashes.
Hair Layers: 1. medulla: the innermost core of the hair that contains pigment.
2. cortex: surrounds the medulla and is tightly compressed keratinized cells.
3. cuticle: outermost layer of keratinized cells
What function do the arector pili muscles serve? What type of muscle tissue are they?
Clusters of parallel smooth muscle fibers that connect the hair follicle to upper regions of the dermis. Create goose bumps.
What is the function of the sebaceous glands?
Holocrine glands that secrete sebum, a waxy lipid, that is dispersed along the shaft of the hair to the surface of the skin to lubricate and waterproof the stratum corneum and keep the hair from becoming brittle.
How do apocrine sweat glands differ from merocrine sweat glands? Where on the body is each type found?
Apocrine sweat glands= much larger and are found in the axillary and pubic regions where they secrete into hair follicles.
Merocrine sweat glands=widely distributed over the body, especially on the forehead, back, palms and soles. These glands function in evaporative cooling.
Describe the structural characteristics of the 3 types of muscle. Which is voluntary? involuntary?
Smooth= long uninucleated fibers. Not striated. Involuntary.
Cardiac= branching fibers with central nucleus and connecting intercalated disks. Striated. Involuntary.
Skeletal= elongated multinucleate parallel bundles. Striated. Voluntary.
What function does the sarcoplasmic reticulum serve in muscle?
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum of the fiber that stores calcium ions needed to initiate muscle contraction
What is the basic functional unit of skeletal muscle? What is a motor unit?
Functional unit= sarcomere
Motor unit= a motor neuron plus the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates
What can cause hypertrophy and atrophy of skeletal muscles?
Hypertrophy: increase in muscle fiber size by exercising
Atrophy: wasting of tissues by reduced use
List 4 characteristics that differentiate red fibers from white fibers?
Red fibers: small in diameter, slow, contain myoglobin, and resist fatigue
White fibers: large in diameter, fast, large glycogen reserves, and contain few mitochondria and no myoglobin.
Know the components of the neuromuscular junction.
Synaptic knob: expanded tip of axon. Carries nerve impulse.
Synaptic vesicles: house neurotransmitter ACh in synaptic knob.
Motor end plate: sarcoplasmic formation around synaptic knob.
Synaptic cleft: space separating synaptic knob and motor end plate.
ACh receptors: recieve nerve impulse via ACh.
Define: ligament, tendon, muscle origin, muscle insertion.
Tendon: tissue that connects muscle to bone, skin, or another muscle
Ligament: tissue that connects bone to other bone
Muscle origin: Less mobile attachment of a muscle
Muscle insertion: More mobile attachment of a muscle
Which has a greater range of motion, a long muscle or a short muscle? What structural characteristic primarily determines the strength of a muscle?
Long muscle. Number of muscle fibers and the size of the muscle fibers determine muscle strength
What is tendonitis? What causes tennis elbow?
Tendonitis= inflammation of either a tendon or synovial sheath around the tendon.
Tennis Elbow= inflammation of the extensor tendons in the forearms from repetitive wrist movements.
What causes carpal tunnel syndrome?
A common painful disorder of the wrist and hand, induced by compression of the median nerve between the inelastic carpal ligament and other structures within the carpal tunnel.
Name the 4 muscles that form the rotator cuff?
Supraspinatous muscle, infraspinatous muscle, subscapularis muscle, and teres minor muscle
Name the 4 muscles that form the quadraceps group?
Rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and vastus intermedius
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