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200 terms

Mrs. Murray Sem 2 Bio Exam

STUDY
PLAY
amino acids
Proteins are made of _____
Enzymes
These proteins control chemical reactions in an organism
uracil, thymine
In an RNA molecule the base _____ is present instead of _____ that is in the DNA
tRNA
This is the molecule that is responsible for transporting an amino acid to the ribosome
codon
Each set of three bases on an mRNA is called
transcription
this is the process of creating an mRNA from a DNA
translation
This is the process of creating a string of amino acids
20
The total number of different amino acids is ______
gene
This is a segment of DNA that codes for a protein
ribosome
This is where translation takes place
proteins and rRNA
The ribosome is made up of these molecules: _____ and _____
RNA polymerase II
This is the enzyme that attaches free RNA nucleotides in transcription
TGTATC
The correct DNA compliment for the following DNA strand: ACATAG
GCCGUAUAG
The correct RNA transcript for the following DNA strand: CGGCATATC
AUG
This is the start codon, ALWAYS!
Methionine
AUG will code for which amino acid?
tRNA
Which RNA molecule has a distinctive "clover-leaf" shape?
Peptide
This is the type of bond that forms between the amino acids.
Promoter
This is a place on the DNA molecule that "advertises" for the attachment of the Polymerase for transcription of a gene
Stop codon
UAA is an example of....
introns
In processing of a mRNA molecule, the _____ are removed before translation.
3. Gene expression is controlled differently in specific cell types
Which of the following statements is true? 1. All genes are always expressen in all cell types. 2. Different cell types have different sets of genes. 3. Gene expression is controlled differently in specific cell types. 4. Gene expression is random and occurs by chance.
nucleic acids
DNA and RNA are ______
nucleotides
These are the building blocks of nucleic acids
A release factor enters the A site of the ribosome and the whole complex comes apart
During the assembly of a protein, when a stop codon enters the ribosome, this happens:
pre-mRNA editing
A "cap" and a "tail" are associated with this:
spliceosome
These are the enzymes used to remove non-coding portions of the mRNA before exit from the nucleus
adenines
The tail of a mRNA consists of many of these bases
methylated guanosine
The cap of a mRNA consists of this
A-T, G-C
A section of DNA that has many _____ repeats is weaker than one that contains many _____ because of the number of hydrogen bonds
TATA Box
The promoter region has this segment that the transcribing enzymes recognized as a binding spot
exons
The coding sections of a mRNA are called
coding strand
This is the strand of the unzipped DNA that is used as a template for the mRNA
P site
This is the first site to be filled by a tRNA carrying an amino acid
anticodon
The three bases on the tRNA that compliment with the bases on the mRNA during translation
E. Coli
What organism will be transformed in the lab activity?
A gene coding for turning the colonies green, a gene coding for resistance to ampicillin
What 2 genes are carried by the pGLO plasmid?
arabinose
What nutrient substance acts as a chemical switch to activate one of the genes on our plasmid?
ampicillin
What specific antibiotic will our transformed organisms be resistant to?
E. Coli does not have many cells, making it easier to transform.
Why is E. Coli a good choice for an organism to transform?
heat shock
What main procedure makes our organism competent?
food
What is the purpose of Lauria Broth (LB)?
to maintain a control on the experiment
What is the purpose of the -pGLO tubes, plates?
Ampicillin should kill the E. Coli
What do you expect to see on the -pGLO LB/Amp plate?
E. Coli will not fluoresce and the pGLO will neutralize the effects of ampicillin
What do you expect to see on the +pGLO LB/Amp plate?
The plate with arabinose will turn glowing green.
What do you expect to see on the +pGLO LB/Amp/Ara plate?
Down their concentration gradient
During diffusion, molecules will move....
wilts
When the cells of a plant have low turgor pressure, the plant
active transport
The sodium (NA+) and potassium (K+) pump is an example of
active transport pumps
a cell must use ATP if using ______ to transport molecules
phagocytosis
Some animal cells engulf large solid substances through the process of ______
Osmosis
Aquaporin is important in
exocytosis
cells remove waste through a process of ______
phospholipids
The cell membrane is made up mostly of ______
some movement of water in both directions, but no net movement
If a dialysis bag with distilled water inside of it were placed in distilled water, what would happen?
Chromatin
This is the form of hereditary material that is present in the nucleus most of the time, it is loose and looks grainy through a microscope
nucleolus
Ribosomes are made here
cisternae
The internal space of the rough endoplasmic reticulum is called _____
lysosomes
The garbage collectors of the cell are _____
Vacuole
Large sack in plant cell that stores water
cristae
Folded inner membrane of the mitochondria where cellular respiration reactions occur
mitochondria
All are part of the chloroplast except: (thylakoid, DNA, grana, mitochondria)
microtubules
The thickest of the cytoskeleton filaments are
CO2
Cells of plats must take in ______, which is normally a waste product created by animal cells
O2 and C6H12O6
What two fuels are neeed by the mitochondria in order to make ATP?
electrical potential
The increased concentration of a particular ion on one side of a cell membrane in order to do work is called
isotonic solution
When a cell experiences no net movement of water then it is surrounded by a(n)
conductivity
In the diffusion lab experiment, with the dialysis bags, we used _____ to measure the rate of diffusion
synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbs, and detoxification of drugs and poisons
List the functions of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum
size, charge, polarity
List three characteristics of molecules that determine permeability for that molecule
free ribosomes
Proteins intended for use within the cell are made here
fungi, archaebacteria, plants
List three organisms that have cell walls (there are more than the ones I have listed here)
Mitochondria
These were once thought to have been a free living prokaryote that could metabolize oxygen
sex cells
The purpose of Meiosis is to produce what?
reduction
Meiosis I is sometimes referred to as the ______ stage of meiosis because the chromosome number goes from 2n to 1n
2
Meiosis II happens to _______ cells at once
Metaphase
In which phase do the chromosomes line up 2x2 or side-by-side with their partner down the middle
synapsis
Partners on a dance floor coming together and embracind is how we describe this process for homologous pairs
crossing-over
When bits of chromatid segments break off and switch places with the partner, this is called _______
4
The ratio of gamete production for spermatogenisis is 1 to
1
The ratio of gamete production for oogenisis is 1 to
nondisjunction
when homologous partners do not separate in Anaphase I
mitosis
In the process of cell division, cytokinesis follows _____
chromosomes line up in the center of the cell
Each of the following occurs by the end of prophase except: (coiling of the chromosome becomes tighter, nucleus disappears, chromosomes line up in the center of the cell, nuclear envelope breaks down)
spindle fiber
In mitosis, the string-like structure that is important to moving the chromatids apart is the _____
G1
In the cell cycle, the main growth of the cell usually occurs during _____
Faster
As a cell increases in size, its volume increases _____ than its surface area
interphase
The first stage of the cell cycle is _____
Cytokinesis
The process by which cytoplasm of a cell divides is called
Prophase
The first phase of mitosis is _____
centromere
Sister chromatids are attached to each other at the
Mitosis
The process by which the nucleus and its contents are divided is called
Synthesis
The stage of the cell cycle during which DNA is replicated
Telophase
In mitosis, the chromosomes begin to unwind into a tangle of chromatin during what phase?
chromosomes
The condensing and coiling of chromatin results in visible
plant
As new cells are formed, a cell plate forms midway between the nuclei in these types of cells
kinetochore
The protein handle on the sister chromatid for spindle attachment
interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis
For a cell to go through a complete reproductive cycle the stages occur in the following order and have the approximate percentage of time spent in each phase or stage: 80% _____, 18% _____, 2% _____
cleavage furrow
In an animal cell the cell membrane begins to pinch in forming a _____ in preparation for cytokinesis
sister chromatids
After DNA replication, the exact copies remain attached to each other, now being called _____
non-polar
lipids are (polar or non-polar)
3
In the formation of a triglyceride _____ water molecules are formed
2, oxygen
Triglycerides release _____ times the energy per gram as carbohydrates do when combined with _____
carboxyl
The left end of the molecule unsaturated fatty acid contains the functional group called
hydrophobic
The science name for "water fearing" is _____
bilayer of phospholipids
Cell membranes are made of a
wax
A structural lipid that plants and animals use for protection
steroid (Manny Ramirez)
This type of lipid does not have a carbon chain for its backbone; instead it has 4 carbon rings
double helix
DNA has this type of structure
deoxyribose
What type of sugar does DNA have
negative charge
The phosphate group on the DNA and RNA allows DNA and RNA to be manipulated because it gives the molecule this property: a _____
because it has 5 carbon atoms
Why is the sugar of a nucleotide called "pentose"
antiparallel
One half of a DNA molecule arranged in an upside down orientation compared to the other half is called _____
genome
the entire hereditary code for a living thing is called _____
chromosome
a linear strand of eukaryotic DNA
haploid
half the number of chromosomes as are found in a body cell
somate
a body cell
Thymine
Adenine compliments _____ in a DNA molecule
Thymine
This base is not present in an RNA molecule
peptide
The chemical reaction that involves two amino acid structures side-by-side and create a condensation reaction forms what type of bond?
polypeptide
Proteins can also be called
structural
collagen is an example of this type of protein
hormone
These type of proteins are chemical messengers that are made in the glands and affect only target tissues
enzyme
These types of proteins act as catalysts in chemical reactions
chemical reaction
whenever bonds are broken or made this is called _____
20
How many unique amino acids are there?
function
Finish this statement: "Shape determines _____"
the "R" group
this part of the amino acid is what makes it unique
hydrogen bonding, temperature, solvent type
These three things can affect the shape of a protein
primary structure
the list of the order of the amino acids that make up a protein is considered the
secondary structure
alpha helices and beta pleaetd sheets describe this
quartanary structure
When two or more peptide chains join together to form a large complex protein
tertiary structure
the overall 3-D globular shape of a protein
covalent
What type of bond forms when two atoms share electrons?
isomers
Molecules with the same chemical formula but different structural formulae are called
monosaccharides
Glucose and fructose are
polar
Because hydrogen and oxygen do not share electrons evenly, water is a _____ molecule
glucose
The monomers of glycogen are
C6H12O6
The chemical formula for glucose is
cellulose
The most abundant organic material on earth is a polysaccharide called _____
carbon
Organic compounds must contain the element _____
4
Carbon can form up to _____ single covalent bonds
atom
Each element is made up of only one kind of _____
protons and neutrons
The nucleus of an atom contains
electrons
An ionic bond forms when two atoms combine by gaining or losing _____
ATP
the energy "currency" for all life is
isotope
An atom that has more protons that neutrons is called a(n)
7.4
the pH of human blood needs to remain at approximately _____
Water
The most important component of cells
CO2
This waste gas is small and non-polar so it can diffuse across the membrane easily
O2
This fuel is a gas that can diffuse eaily across the cell membrane
phosphates
These hydrophilic regions of the cell membrane attract ions and polar molecules
hypertonic
When solute levels are higher outside of a cell compared to the cytoplasm, the outside is considered _____
expand because the cytoplasm is hypertonic
If a blood cell is placed in distilled water, the cell will _____
facilitated diffusion
Water diffuses by _____
endocytosis
When a cell membrane changes shape to take in large molecules, it is called _____
receptors
Other than transporters, proteins embedded in the membrane can act like _____
diffusion
the random movement of molecules from a high concentration to a low concentration is called _____
electrical potential
Ions are quite often pumped across the membrane to maintain
ATP
This molecule is required to move substances up their concentration gradient
phagocytosis
a special type of active transport involving cytoskeleton movement is called _____
isotonic
water will always try to reach this state
bacteria
cells that have no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles:(fungi, plant, bacteria, protists)
prokaryotes
These cells do not have membrane-bound organelles: (prokaryotes or eukaryotes)
False
True or False: Archaebacteria live in simplistic environments.
human skin cells
All have cell walls except: (human skin cells, E. coli, portabella mushrooms, extremophiles)
selectively permeable membrane
What determines how or if somethings enters?
Mitochondria
This has its own DNA and divides independently of the cell
Length X width X height
Volume is the measurement of _____ X _____ X _____
chromatin
DNA that is loosely packed and expressing hereditary information
cisternae
the space inside the endoplasmic reticulum
golgi apparatus
this organelle is not continuous; it looks like stacks of soggy pancakes
lysosomes
the garbage collectors of the cell
chloroplast
has thylakoids and grana
structure, function
Cells are the basic units of _____ and _____ for living things
acidic
lysosomes have an environment within them that is on what end of the pH scale?
poor buffer
Water is considered a _____ because it's pH fluctuates drastically in the presence of acid or base
10
The pH scale is an exponential logarithmic scale in that when you move from any number to the next on the scale, the acidity or alkanity increases or decreases by a power
constant motion
The electrons of an atom occupy more space than the protons and neutrons because of their _____
has a slightly positive charge near the Hydrogens and a slightly negative charge near the oxygen
Water is polar. This means that it
2
Atoms are limited to no more than _____ electrons on their on their innermost energy level
ionization
When salt dissociates in water, and each atom now carries a charge, this process is called _____
hydrophilic
The science name for "water loving" is _____
wax
a structural lipid that plants use for retaining water
half a "ladder"
RNA has this type of structure
deoxyribose
What type of sugar does DNA have
phosphate
What part of a nucleotide allows DNA and RNA to be manipulated because of its charge
5
how many carbons are in the sugar of a nucleotide
homologous
Two strands of DNA that each carry the genes for the same traits in the same location along their lengths are called what?
diploid
A somatic cell is described as having the _____ number of chromosomes
Guanine
Cytosine compliments _____ in a DNA molecule
Uracil
This base is present in an RNA molecule, and not found in DNA
transport
Hemoglobin is an example of this type of protein
substrate
The item an enzyme works on is called what?
A site
The second site to be filled by a tRNA carrying an amino acid and is the site that continuously gets filled as it becomes vacant
pGLO
The name of the plasmid used in our bacterial tranformation lab
adding CaCl2
This procedure causes a chemical change in the cell membrane making it more likely to take up plasmid
Lauria Broth
This nutrient helps the bacteria reach their log phase of growth
ultra violet
What type of light do the transformed bacteria glow under if the GFP is turned on?
white
What color do the transformed bacteria show up as on the +pGLO LB/amp plate?