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amino acids

Proteins are made of _____


These proteins control chemical reactions in an organism

uracil, thymine

In an RNA molecule the base _____ is present instead of _____ that is in the DNA


This is the molecule that is responsible for transporting an amino acid to the ribosome


Each set of three bases on an mRNA is called


this is the process of creating an mRNA from a DNA


This is the process of creating a string of amino acids


The total number of different amino acids is ______


This is a segment of DNA that codes for a protein


This is where translation takes place

proteins and rRNA

The ribosome is made up of these molecules: _____ and _____

RNA polymerase II

This is the enzyme that attaches free RNA nucleotides in transcription


The correct DNA compliment for the following DNA strand: ACATAG


The correct RNA transcript for the following DNA strand: CGGCATATC


This is the start codon, ALWAYS!


AUG will code for which amino acid?


Which RNA molecule has a distinctive "clover-leaf" shape?


This is the type of bond that forms between the amino acids.


This is a place on the DNA molecule that "advertises" for the attachment of the Polymerase for transcription of a gene

Stop codon

UAA is an example of....


In processing of a mRNA molecule, the _____ are removed before translation.

3. Gene expression is controlled differently in specific cell types

Which of the following statements is true? 1. All genes are always expressen in all cell types. 2. Different cell types have different sets of genes. 3. Gene expression is controlled differently in specific cell types. 4. Gene expression is random and occurs by chance.

nucleic acids

DNA and RNA are ______


These are the building blocks of nucleic acids

A release factor enters the A site of the ribosome and the whole complex comes apart

During the assembly of a protein, when a stop codon enters the ribosome, this happens:

pre-mRNA editing

A "cap" and a "tail" are associated with this:


These are the enzymes used to remove non-coding portions of the mRNA before exit from the nucleus


The tail of a mRNA consists of many of these bases

methylated guanosine

The cap of a mRNA consists of this

A-T, G-C

A section of DNA that has many _____ repeats is weaker than one that contains many _____ because of the number of hydrogen bonds


The promoter region has this segment that the transcribing enzymes recognized as a binding spot


The coding sections of a mRNA are called

coding strand

This is the strand of the unzipped DNA that is used as a template for the mRNA

P site

This is the first site to be filled by a tRNA carrying an amino acid


The three bases on the tRNA that compliment with the bases on the mRNA during translation

E. Coli

What organism will be transformed in the lab activity?

A gene coding for turning the colonies green, a gene coding for resistance to ampicillin

What 2 genes are carried by the pGLO plasmid?


What nutrient substance acts as a chemical switch to activate one of the genes on our plasmid?


What specific antibiotic will our transformed organisms be resistant to?

E. Coli does not have many cells, making it easier to transform.

Why is E. Coli a good choice for an organism to transform?

heat shock

What main procedure makes our organism competent?


What is the purpose of Lauria Broth (LB)?

to maintain a control on the experiment

What is the purpose of the -pGLO tubes, plates?

Ampicillin should kill the E. Coli

What do you expect to see on the -pGLO LB/Amp plate?

E. Coli will not fluoresce and the pGLO will neutralize the effects of ampicillin

What do you expect to see on the +pGLO LB/Amp plate?

The plate with arabinose will turn glowing green.

What do you expect to see on the +pGLO LB/Amp/Ara plate?

Down their concentration gradient

During diffusion, molecules will move....


When the cells of a plant have low turgor pressure, the plant

active transport

The sodium (NA+) and potassium (K+) pump is an example of

active transport pumps

a cell must use ATP if using ______ to transport molecules


Some animal cells engulf large solid substances through the process of ______


Aquaporin is important in


cells remove waste through a process of ______


The cell membrane is made up mostly of ______

some movement of water in both directions, but no net movement

If a dialysis bag with distilled water inside of it were placed in distilled water, what would happen?


This is the form of hereditary material that is present in the nucleus most of the time, it is loose and looks grainy through a microscope


Ribosomes are made here


The internal space of the rough endoplasmic reticulum is called _____


The garbage collectors of the cell are _____


Large sack in plant cell that stores water


Folded inner membrane of the mitochondria where cellular respiration reactions occur


All are part of the chloroplast except: (thylakoid, DNA, grana, mitochondria)


The thickest of the cytoskeleton filaments are


Cells of plats must take in ______, which is normally a waste product created by animal cells

O2 and C6H12O6

What two fuels are neeed by the mitochondria in order to make ATP?

electrical potential

The increased concentration of a particular ion on one side of a cell membrane in order to do work is called

isotonic solution

When a cell experiences no net movement of water then it is surrounded by a(n)


In the diffusion lab experiment, with the dialysis bags, we used _____ to measure the rate of diffusion

synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbs, and detoxification of drugs and poisons

List the functions of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum

size, charge, polarity

List three characteristics of molecules that determine permeability for that molecule

free ribosomes

Proteins intended for use within the cell are made here

fungi, archaebacteria, plants

List three organisms that have cell walls (there are more than the ones I have listed here)


These were once thought to have been a free living prokaryote that could metabolize oxygen

sex cells

The purpose of Meiosis is to produce what?


Meiosis I is sometimes referred to as the ______ stage of meiosis because the chromosome number goes from 2n to 1n


Meiosis II happens to _______ cells at once


In which phase do the chromosomes line up 2x2 or side-by-side with their partner down the middle


Partners on a dance floor coming together and embracind is how we describe this process for homologous pairs


When bits of chromatid segments break off and switch places with the partner, this is called _______


The ratio of gamete production for spermatogenisis is 1 to


The ratio of gamete production for oogenisis is 1 to


when homologous partners do not separate in Anaphase I


In the process of cell division, cytokinesis follows _____

chromosomes line up in the center of the cell

Each of the following occurs by the end of prophase except: (coiling of the chromosome becomes tighter, nucleus disappears, chromosomes line up in the center of the cell, nuclear envelope breaks down)

spindle fiber

In mitosis, the string-like structure that is important to moving the chromatids apart is the _____


In the cell cycle, the main growth of the cell usually occurs during _____


As a cell increases in size, its volume increases _____ than its surface area


The first stage of the cell cycle is _____


The process by which cytoplasm of a cell divides is called


The first phase of mitosis is _____


Sister chromatids are attached to each other at the


The process by which the nucleus and its contents are divided is called


The stage of the cell cycle during which DNA is replicated


In mitosis, the chromosomes begin to unwind into a tangle of chromatin during what phase?


The condensing and coiling of chromatin results in visible


As new cells are formed, a cell plate forms midway between the nuclei in these types of cells


The protein handle on the sister chromatid for spindle attachment

interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis

For a cell to go through a complete reproductive cycle the stages occur in the following order and have the approximate percentage of time spent in each phase or stage: 80% _____, 18% _____, 2% _____

cleavage furrow

In an animal cell the cell membrane begins to pinch in forming a _____ in preparation for cytokinesis

sister chromatids

After DNA replication, the exact copies remain attached to each other, now being called _____


lipids are (polar or non-polar)


In the formation of a triglyceride _____ water molecules are formed

2, oxygen

Triglycerides release _____ times the energy per gram as carbohydrates do when combined with _____


The left end of the molecule unsaturated fatty acid contains the functional group called


The science name for "water fearing" is _____

bilayer of phospholipids

Cell membranes are made of a


A structural lipid that plants and animals use for protection

steroid (Manny Ramirez)

This type of lipid does not have a carbon chain for its backbone; instead it has 4 carbon rings

double helix

DNA has this type of structure


What type of sugar does DNA have

negative charge

The phosphate group on the DNA and RNA allows DNA and RNA to be manipulated because it gives the molecule this property: a _____

because it has 5 carbon atoms

Why is the sugar of a nucleotide called "pentose"


One half of a DNA molecule arranged in an upside down orientation compared to the other half is called _____


the entire hereditary code for a living thing is called _____


a linear strand of eukaryotic DNA


half the number of chromosomes as are found in a body cell


a body cell


Adenine compliments _____ in a DNA molecule


This base is not present in an RNA molecule


The chemical reaction that involves two amino acid structures side-by-side and create a condensation reaction forms what type of bond?


Proteins can also be called


collagen is an example of this type of protein


These type of proteins are chemical messengers that are made in the glands and affect only target tissues


These types of proteins act as catalysts in chemical reactions

chemical reaction

whenever bonds are broken or made this is called _____


How many unique amino acids are there?


Finish this statement: "Shape determines _____"

the "R" group

this part of the amino acid is what makes it unique

hydrogen bonding, temperature, solvent type

These three things can affect the shape of a protein

primary structure

the list of the order of the amino acids that make up a protein is considered the

secondary structure

alpha helices and beta pleaetd sheets describe this

quartanary structure

When two or more peptide chains join together to form a large complex protein

tertiary structure

the overall 3-D globular shape of a protein


What type of bond forms when two atoms share electrons?


Molecules with the same chemical formula but different structural formulae are called


Glucose and fructose are


Because hydrogen and oxygen do not share electrons evenly, water is a _____ molecule


The monomers of glycogen are


The chemical formula for glucose is


The most abundant organic material on earth is a polysaccharide called _____


Organic compounds must contain the element _____


Carbon can form up to _____ single covalent bonds


Each element is made up of only one kind of _____

protons and neutrons

The nucleus of an atom contains


An ionic bond forms when two atoms combine by gaining or losing _____


the energy "currency" for all life is


An atom that has more protons that neutrons is called a(n)


the pH of human blood needs to remain at approximately _____


The most important component of cells

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