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45 terms

Computer Basics and How They Work

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ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange
Binary
Base two number systems - has two symbols => 1 and 0
Binary code
A base-2 number system that uses two digits, 0 and 1.
Binary digit
either 0 or 1 in binary notation
Bit
smallest piece of information used by the computer. Derivied form "binary digit". In computer language, it is either a one (1) or a zero (0).
Byte
A series of of bits used to encode a letter, number, or a special characte; usualy has 8 bits
Character
A single letter, digit, or special symbolsuch as ?, #, or *.
computer
A device used to accept, process, store, and get information.
Digital Informaton
information that is in the format that the computer reads which is 0's and 1's
Disk Drive
The device used to store data on a disk and to read what is stored on a disk.
Expansion slot
A connector inside a computer designed to allow a user to add printed circuits boards.
Floppy disk
a reusable magnetic storage medium that uses a thin mylar circular disk as the storage surface.
Format
To prepare a disk so that data and programs can be stored on it by particular computer system.
Gigabyte
One billion bytes (or charaters).
Graphics
Pictures or illustrations on a page.
Hard copy
Output that is printed on paper.
Hard Disk
A rigid disk, usually metal, encased in a hard disk or in a plastic case or cartridge
Hardware
The physical parts that make up a computer system for example Keyboards, printers, monitors, and so on.
Input
The step in the data processing flow during which data is collected and entered into the computer.
Integrated circuits
Circuitry whose parts are etched together on a small silicon chip less than one-fourth of an inch square.
Keyboard
An input device that usually has keys like those on a typewriter.
Kilobyte
storage units
Megabyte
One million bytes
Megahertz
A measure of speed, one million cyclesper second.
Memory
A place to store information; usually coded in a binary format; see RAM ROM.
Microprocesser
The main processing unit of a computer or information processing device; the "brains" of the machine carrying out instructions, performing calculations, and interactions with the components used to operate the computer. Handles the fetch , decode and exxecute steps of the computer.
Monitor
A computer output device that uses a display screen to present the processed information.
Motherboard
The main circuit board of a computer housing the microprocessor and providing the means of connecting all the components that make up the computer.
Mouse
A computer input device used as a pointing and drawing instruments by selecting specific positions on the monitor display.
Output
The computer generated informations that is displayed to the user in some discernible form such as a screen display, printed page, or sound.
Peripheral device
A device that is attached to the computer and aids in input and/or output
Pixel
The smallest unit on a display screen grid that can be stored displayed or adressed
Primary storage
The computer's immediate internal memory, RAM and ROM
Printer
A machine that prints characters or other images on paper.
Processing
The second step of the data processing flow in which the computer acts on data.
Program
The set of instructions needed to accomplish a given task.
RAM
Random access memory
ROM
Read only memory
Scanner
A machine that changes images from paper or photos into digital formthat the computer can use.
Secondary Storage
Storage that is not involved in the processing of information. This type of storage is used to maintain the digital information for later use. Includes such storage devices as disk, tapes, and CD's
Silicon chip
A small piece of silicon on which circuits are etched.
Soft copy
A temporary display of out put seen on a monitor.
Software
Programs, or instructions, that tell a computer exactly what to do.
Transistor
A solid device that controls electric curent flow with out using a vaccum tube.
Vacuum tube
Glass bulbs like light bulbs that electricity passes through. They can be found in old radios and TV's