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Lesson 3 (Rome, Rise of Christianity, Rise of Islam)

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republic
a form of government in which the leader is not a monarch and certain citizens have the right to vote
patrician
one of Rome's wealthy landowners who became Rome's ruling class; one of two groups of citizens
plebeian
a number of the second and larger group of Roman citizens who were less wealthy landowners, merchants, and craftspeople
consul
an officer of the Roman Republic who ran the government and led the army into battle
praetor
an officer of the Roman Republic who was in charge of civil law
triumvirate
a government by three people of equal power
dictator
an absolute ruler
imperator
commander-in-cheif of the Roman army; a title given to Augustus by the Senate
paterfamilias
the dominate male in a Roman family
insulae
apartment blocks in Rome where the poor lived
procurator
a Roman official who directed the affairs of the province
New Testament
the second part of the Christian Bible
clergy
church leaders
laity
regular church members
plague
an epidemic disease
inflation
a rapid increase in prices
sheikh
the ruler of an Arab tribe
Quran
the holy scriptures of Islam
Islam
peace through submission to the will of Allah; the religion founded by Muhammad
Hijrah
the journey of Muhammad and his followers to Madinah
hajj
a pilgrimage to Mecca; one of the five pillars of Islam
shari'ah
a set of laws followed by Muslims
caliph
a successor to Muhammad or a ruler of Islam
jihad
"struggle in the way of God;" the Arabic customs of raiding one's enemies
Shiite
Muslims who accepted only the descendants of Ali as true caliphs
Sunni
Muslims who accepted only the descendants of the Umayyads as the true caliphs
vizier
prime minister who advised the caliph
sultan
"holder of power;" the title of the Turkish ruler who took command of the Arab empire
mosque
a Muslim temple or house of worship
bazaar
a covered market
dowry
in Islamic society, a gift of money or property given to a bride from the husband
astrolabe
an instrument used by sailors to determine their position by observing the stars and planets
minaret
a tower on a mosque
muezzin
a crier who calls the faithful to prayer
arabesque
geometric patterns that decorated Islamic works of art
Etruscans
group of people that launched a building program that turned Rome into a city
Vandals
German tribe that invaded the Roman Empire and sacked Rome in A.D. 455
Theodosius the Great
made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire
Sadducees
group of Jewish leaders who favored cooperation with the Romans
Romulus Augustulus
deposed by the Germanic head of the army, marking the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Antony and Cleopatra
couple who committed suicide after being defeated by Octavian
Roman Senate
a select group of about three hundred patricians who served for life
Pax Romana
period of peace and prosperity that lasted almost a hundred years
Centuriate Assembly
a group of people in the Roman Republic who chose the consuls and praetors, and passed laws
Twelve Tables
Rome's first code of laws; it applied to Romans and non-Romans
Abbasids
replaced the Umayyad dynasty
Omar Khayyam
Muslim author known for his literary works, especially the Rubaiyat
Cordoba
with a population of two hundred thousand, it was Europe's second largest city after Constantinople
Pharisees
group of Jewish leaders who thought that closely following religious law would protect Jews from Roman influences
vizier
prime minister who advised the caliph
Aphrodite
Greek Goddess of Love, named Venus by the Romans
Virgil
most distinguished poet of the Augustan Age and author of the Aeneid
Mars
the Roman God of War, names Ares by the Greeks
Muhammad
prophet of Allah who believed the final revelations of Allah were being given to him
Juvenal
Roman poet who said the only things that concerned the Roman masses were "Bread and Circuses"
Circus Maximus
Roman arena where chariot races and gladiatorial shows took place
Hussein
led a revolt in the early Umayyad period that split Islam into two groups: the Shiites and the Sunnis
"fleets of the desert"
name for the Berber camel caravans
Edict of Milan
decree issued by Constantine that proclaimed the official tolerance of Christianity
Hannibal
Carthaginian general who crossed the Alps with 46,000 men, lots of horses, and 37 elephants and conquered some parts of Italy, but not Rome
Bedouins
nomadic Arabs in the desert who were among the first people to support Muhammad
Seljuk Turks
nomads from central Asia who replaced the Abbasids in 1055
Sicily
became Rome's first province after the First Punic War
Zama
battle at which Hannibal's forces were finally defeated in 202 B.C.
Gracchus brothers
pushed for land reform as a remedy for Rome's economic and social crisis
Octavian/Augustus
Rome's first emperor who brought stability to the Roman Empire
Spartacus
led the most famous of the Roman slave revolts, which lasted for two years
Constantine
first Roman emperor to accept Christianity as his personal faith