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130 terms

Government

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unconstitutional
what the Supreme Court rules if something is against the Constitution
unanimous
in complete agreement
George Mason
father of the "Bill of Rights"
states
The Articles of Confederation gave power to the ________
national / federal
The Articles of Confederation created a weak ____________
Virginia Plan/Large States
idea that said a state's representatives should be based on its population
New Jersey Plan/Small States
idea that thought each state should have an equal number of representatives
bicameral
two houses
Great Compromise
the agreement to combine two plans and create a bicameral legislative branch
House of Representatives
this side of the legislative branch has representative's based on a state's population
Senate
this side of the legislative branch has an equal number of representatives from each state
2
number of Senators from each state
Congress
the word used to describe BOTH the House of Representatives and the Senate
3/5 Compromise
how the Constitutional Convention decided to handle slavery, made each slave worth part of the state's population
Federalists
these people wanted a strong central government and were in favor of the Constitution
Antifederalists
were worried that the Constitution did not have a Bill of Rights or gave too much power to the national government
Federalists Papers
collection of writings about why states should ratify the Constitution
impeach
the Legislative branch can "check" on the Executive Branch by _________ the president
President
Head of the Executive Branch
9
Number of Supreme Court Justices
2 years
how long a representative's term is
4 years
how long a president's term is
6 years
how long a senator's term is
35 years old
how old you have to be to be president
25 years old
how old you have to be to be a representative
unconstitutional
if the Supreme Court reviews a law and finds it isn't in the Constitution, the law is declared _______________
judicial review
the process that the Supreme Court uses to judge on laws and cases
Executive
the branch that ENFORCES the laws
Judicial
the branch that INTERPRETS the laws
Legislative
the branch that MAKES laws
1st Amendment
amendment that protects freedom of speech, religion, press, and petition
2nd Amendment
amendment that protects right to bear arms
4th Amendment
amendment that prohibits unresonable searches
8th Amendment
amendment that protects against cruel and unusual punishment
10th Amendment
amendment that grants power to the states if it is not in the US Constitution
Bill of Rights
the first 10 amendements, guaranteed rights
Article I
the article of the Constitution that addresses the legislative branch
Article II
the article of the Constitution that addresses the executive branch
Article III
the article of the Constitution that addresses the judicial branch
Article IV
the article of the Constitution that addresses the rights of states and how states can join the union
Article V
the article of the Constitution that addresses how to amend the Constitution
James Madison
Federalist: author of the Federalist Papers
veto
if the president rejects a bill, it is called a _______
committee
the first place a bill goes on it's way to becoming a law
electoral college
the process the US uses to elect president
538
total number of electoral votes available during a Presidential Election
270
the "magic number" needed to win a Presidential Election
Articles of Confederation
1st form of government in the U.S. Gave all power to the states and little to the national government.
South Plan
Want slavery to continue and to be counted as total population.
North Plan
Want slavery ended but to count slaves for tax purposes but not for representation figures.
Republic
A government in which citizens rule through elected representatives.
Popular sovereignty
the people decide
Federalism
Balance/Sharing of power between federal and state governments.
amend
to change
enumerated powers
Power that belongs only to federal government
reserved power
Power that belongs to the the state government
concurrent power
Power shared by both state and federal government
3rd Amendment
No Quartering of Soldiers without Owners Permission
5th Amendment
Do Not Incriminate Yourself
6th Amendment
Right to Fair and Speedy Trial
7th Amendment
Trial by Jury
9th Amendment
Just because the Constitution doesn't say it, does not mean you don't have rights.
Popular Sovereignty
A government in which the people rule. Americans share the power to govern themselves.
Republicanism
A system where the people exercise their power by voting for their political representatives who will represent their beliefs.
Federalism
A system of government in which power is divided between a central government and smaller political units, such as states. The constitution assigns certain powers to the national government. These are delegated powers. Powers kept for the state government are called reserved powers and powers shared or exercised by national and state governments are known as concurrent powers
Separation of Powers
This principle means the division of basic government roles into branches. No one branch is given all the power. Articles 1, 2, and 3 of the constitution detail how powers are split among the legislative, executive and judicial branches.
Checks and Balances
The principle where each branch of government can exercise checks, or controls, over the other branches. The branches of government rely on one another to perform the work of government. For example: Only congress (legislative branch) can pass laws, yet the president (executive branch) can check this power by refusing to sign or approve a law into action. In supreme court (Judicial branch) they can declare a law approved by both the president and congress violates the constitution therefor keeping the law from being passed.
Limited Government
In the american government everyone, citizens and powerful leaders alike, must obey the law. Individual or groups cannot twist or bypass the law to serve their own intrest
Individual Rights
Personal liberties and privileges guaranteed by the government. For example; the government cannot control what people right or say. People also have the right to ask the government peacefully to correct a problem
Popular Sovereignty
A government in which the people rule. Americans share the power to govern themselves.
Republicanism
A system where the people exercise their power by voting for their political representatives who will represent their beliefs.
Federalism
A system of government in which power is divided between a central government and smaller political units, such as states. The constitution assigns certain powers to the national government. These are delegated powers. Powers kept for the state government are called reserved powers and powers shared or exercised by national and state governments are known as concurrent powers
Separation of Powers
This principle means the division of basic government roles into branches. No one branch is given all the power. Articles 1, 2, and 3 of the constitution detail how powers are split among the legislative, executive and judicial branches.
Checks and Balances
The principle where each branch of government can exercise checks, or controls, over the other branches. The branches of government rely on one another to perform the work of government. For example: Only congress (legislative branch) can pass laws, yet the president (executive branch) can check this power by refusing to sign or approve a law into action. In supreme court (Judicial branch) they can declare a law approved by both the president and congress violates the constitution therefor keeping the law from being passed.
Limited Government
In the american government everyone, citizens and powerful leaders alike, must obey the law. Individual or groups cannot twist or bypass the law to serve their own intrest
Individual Rights
Personal liberties and privileges guaranteed by the government. For example; the government cannot control what people right or say. People also have the right to ask the government peacefully to correct a problem
14th Amendment
protects individuals from actions carried out by state governments. It grants citizens "due process" and "equal protection under the law
List 2 powers that each branch of government has to check the other branches of government.
13th Amendment
Reconstruction amendment; abolished slavery
14th Amendment
Reconstruction amendment; gave equal protection under the law for all men
15th Amendment
Right to vote for all men regardless of race
18th Amendment
Prohibited selling and making of alcohol
George Mason
Anti-Federalist who wanted a Bill of Rights added to the Constitution
George Washington
President of Constitutional Convention
Charles de Montesquieu
Responsible for introducint checks and balances and separation of powers
John Peter Zenger
Court case that helped establish freedom of the press/speech
Federalists
people who supported the ratification of the constitution, viewpoints (more power to national government, favored dividing powers among the 3 branches and a single person to lead executive branch, and leaders (James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and John Jay)
Anti-Federalists
did not favor the ratification of the Constitution, viewpoints(important powers should remain with states, legislative branch should have more power than executive , wanted a bill of rights, and leaders - George Mason and Patrick Henry
Popular Sovereignty
rule of the government by the people (VOTING)
Republicanism
people elect representatives to make laws/decisions for them
Separation of Powers
power is separated evenly among the three branches of government
Checks and Balances
each branch of government has the ability to stop the actions of the other branches. Ex: Judicial review, veto, approving appointments
Federalism
power is divided among the national government and state governments (National govt declares war, both national and state tax, state government set standards for education)
Limited Government
no one is above the law. Even the President must go the speed limit!
Individual Rights
personal liberties and freedoms guaranteed in the bill of rights Ex: Freedom of Religion, Speech and Press, Right to bear arms
1787
Year Constitutional Convention was held
Philadelphia, PA
City where the Constitutional Convention was held
Reason for Constitutional Convention
The articles of confederation were too weak and needed to be changed
Virginia Plan
three branches of government, two house legislature (bicameral) both where representation was based on population
New Jersey Plan
legislative to have one house and each state would have one vote in legislature
Great Compromise
Senate- each state had equal representation
House of Representatives- would have representation based on population
3/5 Compromise
-South wanted slaves to be counted as part of the population for representation but not taxation
-North wanted slaves to count as part of the population for taxation and not representation
*Compromise was 3/5 of the slave population would count for representation AND taxation
Executive
Branch that enforces the laws. Headed by the president and located in the White House
Legislative
Branch that makes the laws, made up of the Senate and House of Representatives (Congress) and located in the Capitol
Judicial
interprets the laws, made up of 9 justices and located in the U.S. Supreme Court
Purpose of the Amendments
to keep up with changes in society
Magna Carta
signed in 1215; influenced the Constitution by limiting power of the king, assured trial by jury of peers and created the Great Council of nobles and church offiicials
English Bill of Rights
Influenced the U.S. Constitution by stating that elections for Parliament should be held often; citizens have rights to bear arms, no cruel or unusual punishment, reasserted trial by jury
Ratify
approve
Judicial Review
declaring a law unconstitutional (example of checks and balances)
Federalist Papers
essays written by the Federalists in response to the attacks on them by the Anti-Federalists and described why people should support ratification
Due Process
fair treatment under the law
Pleading the 5th
to refuse to answer a question because the response could provide self-incriminating evidence of an illegal act
Double Jeopardy
cannot be tried for the same crime twice
Congress
(legislature) composed of the House of Representatives and the Senate
Bicameral
two houses/two chambers
Make Treaties
Example of Delegated Powers
Establish Local Governments
Example of Reserved Powers
Conduct Elections
Example of Reserved Powers
Regulate Interstate Trade
Example of Delegated Powers
Collect Taxes
Example of Concurrent Powers
Admit New States
Example of Delegated Powers
Maintain Army and Navy
Example of Delegated Powers
Print Money
Example of Delegated Powers
Create Post Offices
Example of Delegated Powers
Declare War
Example of Delegated Powers
Regulate INTRAstate Trade
Example of Reserved Powers
Build Roads
Example of Concurrent Powers
Charter Banks
Example of Concurrent Powers
Establish Courts
Example of Concurrent Powers