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Hopkins lecture 11
Terms in this set (37)
Clouds, Fog, and Dew all have 2 properties in common:
1) They must form from saturated or nearly saturated air.
RH = 100%, dew point Tº = air Tº
2) they must have a surface (solid or liquid) upon which the water vapor can condense
_______the condensation event (water vapor changing to liquid water)
wherein liquid water droplets form on the ground, vegetation,
a car, or similar surface near the ground.
________ the condensation events wherein the droplets form suspended in the air. they form on solid particals known as condensation nuclei
Clouds and Fog
a microscopic particle which is necessary as a surface on which water vapor condenses to form moisture droplets.
a form of condensation best described as a dense, visible
aggregation of minute moisture droplets and/or tiny ice crystals.
How do Clouds form?
A parcel of air reaches the point of saturation where water vapor is changed to liquid water droplets.
Two basic criteria are used for classifying clouds:
altitude of the cloud & shape of the cloud.
Four altitudinal classes for clouds:
low, middle, high, and
vertically developed thru the troposphere
______clouds are those which lie from near the surface up to 2000 m
these clouds typically consist primarily of liquid water droplets. can consist of ice crystals especially in water.
EX: stratus, stratocumulus, nimbostratus
_____clouds are those which lie between 2000 m & 6000 m (20,000 ft.).
these typically consist of a mixture of liquid water and ice crystals. dependent on the seasons
EX: altostratus, altocumulus
______clouds are those which lie between 6000 m & 13,000 m (43,000 ft.).
_____ typically consist primarily of ice crystals; examples of these are...
EX: cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus
refers to those cloud masses which may stretch from near the surface to over 13,000 m.
Vertically developed thru the troposphere
these consist of water at low levels and ice crystals at high levels
Clouds Vertically developed thru the troposphere
EX: cumulus, cumulonimbus
_____clouds are those which show primarily horizontal development
and are often layered. These are ____clouds.
____clouds are those which show more vertical development.
These are _____clouds.
_____clouds are those which form at high altitude and consist of
ice crystals. These are _____ clouds.
_____ clouds are layered, horizontally developed and typically low altitude
____clouds are puffy like cottonballs and vertically developed
_____ clouds are the wispy shapped curls of hair. they form high in the the atmosphere and are composed of ice crystals
______ clouds refers to those which are producing precipitation (rain,
______, or more commonly called Thunderstorms (T-storms) are cumulus clouds which are producing precipitation.
_______are stratus clouds which are producing precipitation (raining, visable rain coming out from under)
____is basically a cloud in contact with the ground, but the air parcel does not reach saturation by raising and cooling. it either cools to the d.p.T or has water vapor added to reach saturation at the ground
__________ is produced over land as the ground emits LQ radiation, thus losing heat energy and cooling.
this cools the air in contact with the ground and if the air T drops to the d.p.T then condensation may occer.
this process is known as ________
radiational cooling; This type of fog is also called ground fog
____________occurs when warm, moist air moves over a colder
surface & the air cools to its d.p.T.
(advection means the
horizontal movement of air.)
______forms as warm moist air flows up along an elevated plain, or mountian range. the air T reaches d.p.t. by adiabatic cooling as it rises
_________ forms when the air reaches saturation (d.pt. = air t). by having watervapor added to it and not by lowering of the air T. in other words, liquid water evaporates into the air aprcel from off water body or wet surface
______forms when cold air moves over warmer water and the warmer water evaporates into the usaturated cold air causing saturation, condensation, fog formation
________forms as warm raindrops evaporate in a cool air mass
as they fall. This is the type fog associated with frontal systems
and dreary, drizzly days.
_____ is water that has condensed onto objects near the ground when
their Tº's have fallen below the d.p.Tº of the surface air. In winter,
however, solid forms of this may form
condensation occurs at T above the freezing point, then the temperature contenues to drop below the freesing point and the dew freezes. Condensation then freezing
_______ is covering of ice produced by deposition becouses the d.p.T is below freezing.
T/F: water vapor changes directly to the solid state.
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