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102 terms

OGT Social Studies

STUDY
PLAY
bias
influence in an unfair way, An impartial one side of an argument
reliable
worthy of reliance or trust
credible
capable of being believed
Enlightenment
A change in the relationship between the people and their government. People should have freedom to choose their leadership
John Locke
An English philosopher who had the idea of a "social contract" & also said people have natural rights to life, liberty, and property.
Natural Rights
the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
Natural Laws
People use logic and reason to discover laws to better society.
Social Contract
an agreement between the people and their government signifying their consent to be governed
divine right
belief that a rulers authority comes directly from god.
Declaration of Independence
This document was
adopted on July 4, 1776. It
established the 13 American colonies as independent states, free from rule by Great Britain.
monarchy
a government ruled by a king or queen
theocracy
Government headed by religious leaders
absolute monarchy
A political system in which a country is ruled by a monarch, who has complete control.
democracy
government ruled by the people
constitutional monarchy
power of the monarchy is limited by the people
dictatorship
a government in which one person has absolute control/power
Parliamentary democracy
voters elect representatives to a lawmaking body called Parliament. These representatives then choose a prime minister.
Presidential democracy
citizens elect people to make decisions for them in government
industrial revolution
change in economy from handicrafts to machine made goods
urbanization
the flow of people from the countryside to the cities
immigration
people moving into one country from another
agriculture
farming business of growing crops and livestock.
mass production
Process of making large quantities of a product quickly and cheaply
textiles
Industry revolved around making cloth; includes cotton gathering, spinning, and weaving
19th amendment
women's right to vote
26th amendment
lowers the voting age to 18
1st amendment
freedom of press, religion, petition, assembly, & speech.
monopoly
control of a product or service by one company
laissez-faire
Government leaders and public believed government should NOT interfere with business
corporations
businesses that are owned by many investors who buy shares of stock
labor unions
an organization formed by workers to strive for better wages and working conditions
big business
the giant corporations that controlled entire industries, who made big profits by reduing the costs of produced goods
progressive party
political party that believed in change and social improvement, end child labor and end to trusts and monopolies
15th amendment
Right to vote for all adult males
imperialism
establishment of an empire through one country taking control of the government or economy of another
Nationalism
the idea that a citizens own country was superior to all others
18th Amendment
prohibited the manufacture, sale, and possession of alcohol
21st Amendment
Repeals the prohibition amendment
Appeasement
policy of granting concessions to a potential aggressor to avoid a conflict.
Brown v. Board of Education
landmark Supreme Court decision that ordered racially segregated public schools to be integrated overturning separate but equal.
Plessy v. Ferguson
legalized segregation. "Separate but Equal"
Civil Rights Movement
Movement by African Americans led by MLK Jr. against segregation, discrimination, and inequality
Cold War
The conflict between the US and Soviet Union post WWII. The two powers never had open warfare.
Command Economy
important economic decisions are made by the government
Communism
a system based on eliminating private property to end class struggles and create ideal society. In practice, government has controlled of all aspects of life
Conscientious Objector
A person who opposes fighting in a war on moral or religious grounds.
Cuban Missile Crisis
US-Soviet confrontation over missiles in Cuba brought the war to brink of nuclear war
Death Rate
The number of people that die in one year out of every 1000
Cultural Perspective
The particular point of view a person or group has based on their entire background
Dust Bowl
a series of droughts that affected the American Midwest in the 1930s drying up crops and turning soil into dust
Federal Reserve System
a system established in which a government agency oversees the nation's money supply. Federal Reserve Banks lend money to other banks and also decide on bank reserve requirements
French Revolution
A revolution in France against royal authority and noble privilege. King killed, nobility abolished
Genocide
A policy of mass murder carried out against racial, ethnic, or religious groups
Great Depression
A major economic crisis that began in the US in 1929 and affected most of the world. Marked by widespread business failure bank closure, and unemployment
Great Migration
wave of African American migrants from the South to the North seeking better jobs/lives. (post civil war)
Holocaust
genocide of Jewish people in Europe by the Nazis during WWII. Jews were sent to concentration/death camps. Millions died.
Infant Mortality Rate
number of children under one year of age who die for every 1000 born.
Jim Crow laws
a system of laws in southern states that segregated African Americans and forced them to use separate, inferior facilities
Korean War
war in 1950-1953, between North and South Korea in which South Korea was supported by U.N. Troops mainly from US
League of Nations
international organization with a main goal to prevent future worldwide conflicts. Had no army, relied on members militaries.
Literacy Rates
percentage of people in a country able to read and write
Lobbyist
An agent of an interest group hired to influence legislators
Market Economy
system in which economic questions are answered by the free interaction of consumers and producers. Capital is invested on the risk of wealth. Consumers are free to buy or not buy. Supply/Demand set prices.
Marshall Plan
US economic assistance given to rebuild the economies of Western Europe post WWII
McCarthyism
widespread suspicion of communist spies in the US led by Joseph McCarthy
Migration
movement of people from one area to another within a country
Mixed Economy
An economy that blends features of traditional, command, and free market economies
NAACP
African American organization formed to fight for civil rights. lawyers brought Brown v. Board to Supreme Court
NAFTA
an agreement among the US, Canada, Mexico. This makes it much easier to trade with one another by lowering duties
NATO
a military alliance between the US, Canada, and Western Europe nations to defend against communism
Nazism
German political movement by Hitler, based on the principles of dictatorship, violence, and aggression
New Deal
Programs introduced by FDR to fight Great Depression. social and economic programs to lower unemployment and help economy
Red Scare
The fear of communism in American in 1920s leading to the arrest and deportation of radicals and foreigners
Stock Market Crash of 1929
thousands of investors panicked and tried to sell their stocks at any price, causing stock prices to collapse. It threw the world economy into the Great Depression
Tariff
a tax imposed on goods imported from foreign countries
Thesis
an argument that is presented in a report, can be the main idea in one sentence
Traditional Economy
economic system in which chief economic decisions are answered by tradition and customs
Truman Doctrine
Cold War policy in which US pledged to give assistance to the governments of Greece and Turkey and to all nations resisting communism
United Nations
international peacekeeping organization formed post WWII to promote international harmony, peace and economic development
Vietnam War
war fought during the 1960s-70s by American and South Vietnamese against communist North Vietnam
World War I
first global war. Machine gun, gas, trenches, submarines, airplanes. Central Power vs. Allied Power.
Treaty of Versailles
Ends WWI. Harsh to Germany: War debt, war guilt, land loss, disarmament
National Organization of Women
Women's rights organization founded in 1966 to fight discrimination against women; to improve educational, employment, and political opportunities for women; and to fight for equal pay for equal work
A.I.M.
American Indian Movement - Minneapolis, 1968 - Intent: Native American Pride and Self-Defense; Tribes from all over country come to this visit; demanded greater rights for Native Americans, used violence to make its point.
World War II
a war that began in Europe in 1939 between the Allied Powers (France, Great Britain, and eventually the United States) and the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, Japan, and the Soviet Union); the war ended in 1945
de facto segregation
segregation (especially in schools) that happens in fact although not required by law
United Farm Workers
organization of migrant workers formed to win better wages and working conditions led by Cesar Chavez
iron curtain
term for an invisible political line that divided Europe between Communists and Non-Communists
Chicano movement
organized fight against discrimination faced by Latinos in education, employment and the legal system.
India Pakistan
These two countries split from each other into Islamic Pakistan & Hindu India 1947
Israel Palestine conflict
Fight between Jews and Muslims over homeland. Jews=Israelites Muslims=Palestinians
Rwandan Genocide
African Conflict in which militant Hutu slaughtered hundreds of thousands of Tutsi
eminent domain
the right of government to take private property for public use (with just compensation)
Standard of Living
the quality of life based on the possession of the necessities and luxuries that make life easier
Berlin Blockade
blocked east germany from American supplies. Americans bypassed by air-lifting goods to the germans
suburbanization
population movement from cities to the areas surrounding them
conformity
acting according to certain accepted standards
Civil Rights Act 1964
Law that made discrimination illegal in a number of areas, including voting, schools, and jobs
24th Amendment
eliminated the poll tax as a voting requirement
sit in
nonviolent protests in which a person sits and refuses to leave
monetary policy
Managing the economy by altering the supply of money and interest rates.
montgomery bus boycott
plan for African Americans to refuse to use the bus system until companies agreed to change segregation policies