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influence in an unfair way, An impartial one side of an argument


worthy of reliance or trust


capable of being believed


A change in the relationship between the people and their government. People should have freedom to choose their leadership

John Locke

An English philosopher who had the idea of a "social contract" & also said people have natural rights to life, liberty, and property.

Natural Rights

the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property

Natural Laws

People use logic and reason to discover laws to better society.

Social Contract

an agreement between the people and their government signifying their consent to be governed

divine right

belief that a rulers authority comes directly from god.

Declaration of Independence

This document was
adopted on July 4, 1776. It
established the 13 American colonies as independent states, free from rule by Great Britain.


a government ruled by a king or queen


Government headed by religious leaders

absolute monarchy

A political system in which a country is ruled by a monarch, who has complete control.


government ruled by the people

constitutional monarchy

power of the monarchy is limited by the people


a government in which one person has absolute control/power

Parliamentary democracy

voters elect representatives to a lawmaking body called Parliament. These representatives then choose a prime minister.

Presidential democracy

citizens elect people to make decisions for them in government

industrial revolution

change in economy from handicrafts to machine made goods


the flow of people from the countryside to the cities


people moving into one country from another


farming business of growing crops and livestock.

mass production

Process of making large quantities of a product quickly and cheaply


Industry revolved around making cloth; includes cotton gathering, spinning, and weaving

19th amendment

women's right to vote

26th amendment

lowers the voting age to 18

1st amendment

freedom of press, religion, petition, assembly, & speech.


control of a product or service by one company


Government leaders and public believed government should NOT interfere with business


businesses that are owned by many investors who buy shares of stock

labor unions

an organization formed by workers to strive for better wages and working conditions

big business

the giant corporations that controlled entire industries, who made big profits by reduing the costs of produced goods

progressive party

political party that believed in change and social improvement, end child labor and end to trusts and monopolies

15th amendment

Right to vote for all adult males


establishment of an empire through one country taking control of the government or economy of another


the idea that a citizens own country was superior to all others

18th Amendment

prohibited the manufacture, sale, and possession of alcohol

21st Amendment

Repeals the prohibition amendment


policy of granting concessions to a potential aggressor to avoid a conflict.

Brown v. Board of Education

landmark Supreme Court decision that ordered racially segregated public schools to be integrated overturning separate but equal.

Plessy v. Ferguson

legalized segregation. "Separate but Equal"

Civil Rights Movement

Movement by African Americans led by MLK Jr. against segregation, discrimination, and inequality

Cold War

The conflict between the US and Soviet Union post WWII. The two powers never had open warfare.

Command Economy

important economic decisions are made by the government


a system based on eliminating private property to end class struggles and create ideal society. In practice, government has controlled of all aspects of life

Conscientious Objector

A person who opposes fighting in a war on moral or religious grounds.

Cuban Missile Crisis

US-Soviet confrontation over missiles in Cuba brought the war to brink of nuclear war

Death Rate

The number of people that die in one year out of every 1000

Cultural Perspective

The particular point of view a person or group has based on their entire background

Dust Bowl

a series of droughts that affected the American Midwest in the 1930s drying up crops and turning soil into dust

Federal Reserve System

a system established in which a government agency oversees the nation's money supply. Federal Reserve Banks lend money to other banks and also decide on bank reserve requirements

French Revolution

A revolution in France against royal authority and noble privilege. King killed, nobility abolished


A policy of mass murder carried out against racial, ethnic, or religious groups

Great Depression

A major economic crisis that began in the US in 1929 and affected most of the world. Marked by widespread business failure bank closure, and unemployment

Great Migration

wave of African American migrants from the South to the North seeking better jobs/lives. (post civil war)


genocide of Jewish people in Europe by the Nazis during WWII. Jews were sent to concentration/death camps. Millions died.

Infant Mortality Rate

number of children under one year of age who die for every 1000 born.

Jim Crow laws

a system of laws in southern states that segregated African Americans and forced them to use separate, inferior facilities

Korean War

war in 1950-1953, between North and South Korea in which South Korea was supported by U.N. Troops mainly from US

League of Nations

international organization with a main goal to prevent future worldwide conflicts. Had no army, relied on members militaries.

Literacy Rates

percentage of people in a country able to read and write


An agent of an interest group hired to influence legislators

Market Economy

system in which economic questions are answered by the free interaction of consumers and producers. Capital is invested on the risk of wealth. Consumers are free to buy or not buy. Supply/Demand set prices.

Marshall Plan

US economic assistance given to rebuild the economies of Western Europe post WWII


widespread suspicion of communist spies in the US led by Joseph McCarthy


movement of people from one area to another within a country

Mixed Economy

An economy that blends features of traditional, command, and free market economies


African American organization formed to fight for civil rights. lawyers brought Brown v. Board to Supreme Court


an agreement among the US, Canada, Mexico. This makes it much easier to trade with one another by lowering duties


a military alliance between the US, Canada, and Western Europe nations to defend against communism


German political movement by Hitler, based on the principles of dictatorship, violence, and aggression

New Deal

Programs introduced by FDR to fight Great Depression. social and economic programs to lower unemployment and help economy

Red Scare

The fear of communism in American in 1920s leading to the arrest and deportation of radicals and foreigners

Stock Market Crash of 1929

thousands of investors panicked and tried to sell their stocks at any price, causing stock prices to collapse. It threw the world economy into the Great Depression


a tax imposed on goods imported from foreign countries


an argument that is presented in a report, can be the main idea in one sentence

Traditional Economy

economic system in which chief economic decisions are answered by tradition and customs

Truman Doctrine

Cold War policy in which US pledged to give assistance to the governments of Greece and Turkey and to all nations resisting communism

United Nations

international peacekeeping organization formed post WWII to promote international harmony, peace and economic development

Vietnam War

war fought during the 1960s-70s by American and South Vietnamese against communist North Vietnam

World War I

first global war. Machine gun, gas, trenches, submarines, airplanes. Central Power vs. Allied Power.

Treaty of Versailles

Ends WWI. Harsh to Germany: War debt, war guilt, land loss, disarmament

National Organization of Women

Women's rights organization founded in 1966 to fight discrimination against women; to improve educational, employment, and political opportunities for women; and to fight for equal pay for equal work


American Indian Movement - Minneapolis, 1968 - Intent: Native American Pride and Self-Defense; Tribes from all over country come to this visit; demanded greater rights for Native Americans, used violence to make its point.

World War II

a war that began in Europe in 1939 between the Allied Powers (France, Great Britain, and eventually the United States) and the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, Japan, and the Soviet Union); the war ended in 1945

de facto segregation

segregation (especially in schools) that happens in fact although not required by law

United Farm Workers

organization of migrant workers formed to win better wages and working conditions led by Cesar Chavez

iron curtain

term for an invisible political line that divided Europe between Communists and Non-Communists

Chicano movement

organized fight against discrimination faced by Latinos in education, employment and the legal system.

India Pakistan

These two countries split from each other into Islamic Pakistan & Hindu India 1947

Israel Palestine conflict

Fight between Jews and Muslims over homeland. Jews=Israelites Muslims=Palestinians

Rwandan Genocide

African Conflict in which militant Hutu slaughtered hundreds of thousands of Tutsi

eminent domain

the right of government to take private property for public use (with just compensation)

Standard of Living

the quality of life based on the possession of the necessities and luxuries that make life easier

Berlin Blockade

blocked east germany from American supplies. Americans bypassed by air-lifting goods to the germans


population movement from cities to the areas surrounding them


acting according to certain accepted standards

Civil Rights Act 1964

Law that made discrimination illegal in a number of areas, including voting, schools, and jobs

24th Amendment

eliminated the poll tax as a voting requirement

sit in

nonviolent protests in which a person sits and refuses to leave

monetary policy

Managing the economy by altering the supply of money and interest rates.

montgomery bus boycott

plan for African Americans to refuse to use the bus system until companies agreed to change segregation policies

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