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autonomic nervous system, drugs for degen diseases, drugs used for pain, drugs used for respiratory sys and

Sympathetic Nervous System

-adrenergic nerves
-alpha and beta receptors
-neurotransmitter: norepinephrine

Parasympathetic Nervous System

-cholinergic nerves
-muscarinic receptors
-neurotransmitter: acetylcholine

adrenergic (sympathetic) agents

-release (NE) norepinephrine through alpha and beta receptors

Alpha 1 receptor stimulation causes

constriction of blood vessels, pupil dilation (high blood pressure)

Alpha 2 receptor stimulation causes

inhibition of NE release, lowering blood pressure

Beta 1 receptor stimulation causes

increase in heart rate and force of contraction

Beta 2 receptor stimulation causes

the lungs and bronchials to open up.

Adrenergic agents are used for their effects on:

the heart, bronchial tree, nasal passages

Side effects of adrenergic agents:

palpitations, tachycardia, skin flushing, dizziness, tremors

Adrenergic Blockers (alpha and beta)

block the alpha or beta receptors so the receptors are not stimulated

Beta blockers end in:


Beta blocker side effects:

bradycardia, peripheral vasoconostriction, bronchospasm, wheezing, heart failure.

Alpha blockers end in :


alpha blockers are used as _________ for hypertension and Raynaud's disease


alpha blocker side effects:

orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, nausea, bradycardia

Cholinergic Agents (parasympathomimetic agents)

used to mimic actions of the parasympathetic nervous system
-not widely used due to severe adverse effects

Cholinergic Side effects:

nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramping, hypotension, dizziness.

Anticholinergics (muscarinic blockers)

prevent the action of acetylcholine, have opposite actions of the parasympathetic branch, mimic fight or flight response.

Side effects of Anticholinergics:

blurred vision, constipation, urinary retention, dryness of mouth, nose and throat.

Substance P

neurotransmitter thought to be responsible for continuing the pain message


medication used to relieve pain

Opioids are effective at:

suppressing the cough reflex.

Narcan is the most commonly used:

opioid antagonist. Its used for opioid overdose and postoperative opioid depression.

Tylenol (acetaminophen)

has NO anti inflammatory action, does not effect blood coagulation

Max dose for Tylenol in a day is ______ because:

4,000mg perday, having more than this would cause liver toxicity

Acetylsysteine is given when:

tylenol is overdosed

Aspirin should never been given to:


All convulsions are _______ but not all ______ are convulsions

seizures; seizures

Goal of anti seizure therapy:

-supress neuronal activity just enough to prevent abnormal or repetitive firing. Minimize adverse effects of the medicine.

Benzodiazepines intensify_______

inhibitory effects of GABA

Benzodiazepines all have the word _____ in their name



used for management of status epilepticus; also for nausea and vomiting, preoperative sedation, anxiety and insomnia


used for treatment of status epilepticus; also for anxiety related symptoms and muscle spasms

Status Epilepticus

medical emergency that occurs when a seizure is repeated continuously and can lead to brain damage and death if left untreated.


(anti seizure med) desensitizes and prevents spread of disruptive electrical charges in the brain that produce seizures.

Dilantin SE are:

dysrhythmias, severe hypotension, hyperglycemia, ataxia, tritching, insomnia. Interacts with many other drugs! should be used with caution when taking herbal supplements.

antihistamine (H1 receptor blockers)

selectively block the actions of histamine thus alleviating allergic symptoms.

antihistamines reduce the symptoms of :

sneezing, rhinorrhea, and watery eyes

antihistamines DO NOT decrease:

nasal decongestion

Antihistamine Side Effects:

drowsiness, dry mouth, tachycardia, mild hypotension, constipation


used to reduce nasal congestion.

Decongestants cause __________ in the nasal mucous membranes


Side Effects of Decongestants:

mild nasal irritation, insomnia, anxiety, hypertension*

Metered Dose Inhalor (MDI)

needs to be timed with inhalation, mouth is rinsed out after MDI's to prevent absorption into the GI tract and decrease side effects.

Antitussives are drugs that control ______


_______ are the most effective class of antitussives. They act by _________

Opioids; by raising the cough threshold in the cough center, which decreases both the frequency and intensity of the cough. (ie, hydrocodone & codeine)

Expectorants are drugs that:

reduce the thickness or viscosity of bronchial secretions

Expectorants allow for less_______ coughing


Side effects of expectorants:

nausea, vomiting, GI upset

Mucolytics directly loosen _____

thick, viscous bronchial secretions

Acetylcysteine is given for _________ OD


Bronchodilators relieve _____

acute bronchospasms quickly

3 catagories of bronchodilators:

beta-adrenergic, xanthienes, anti cholinergics

Beta Adrenergic Agents are most effective for relieving _______

acute bronchospasm

Beta Adrenergic Agents stimulate _______ within the smooth muschle of the ________

beta receptors; tracheobronchial tree

Albuterol and Epinephrine are _______ acting beta adrenergic agents


Side effects of beta adrenergic agents:

oral meds-tachycardia and tremors

Anticholinergic Agents block _____

parasympathetic nervous system

Anticholinergic side effects:

HA, dizziness, nausea, chest pain, dry mouth and throat irritation, tachycardia

Xanthienes directly act on:

smooth muscle of tracheobrachial tree to dilate bronchi

Xanthienes side effects:

nausea, vomiting, CNS stimulation, tachycardia and or palpitations, cardiac arrhythmias.

Glucocorticoids (corticosteroids) are most effective in _________

treating long term prophylaxis of asthma

Corticosteroids are not effective in stopping ______

an attack already in progress.

Corticosteroids supress______

inflammation, reduce airway obstruction

Leukotriene Modifiers

reduce inflammation and ease bronchoconstriction.

Mast Cell Stabilizers

inhibit release of histamine from master cells.

Parkinson's Disease

imbalance between the neurotransmitters dopamine and acetylcholine in the brain

Parkinson's drug therapy:

increase ability of pt to perform ADL's and minimize symptoms

Parkinson drug groups:

Dopaminergic agents: increase dopamine levels
Anticholinergic agents: block the effects of acetylcholine


(Parkinson med) combination of carbidopa-levodopa therapy.
-carbidopa reduces the metabolism of levodopa peripherally so more levodopa reaches receptor sites in the brain.

Alzheimer's disease

loss of ability to perform tasks that require acetylcholine as the central neurotransmitter.

Alzheimer's drug therapy:

improve cognitive function

Acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitors_______

are most commonly used to treat alzheimer's because it causes acetylcholine receptors to increase

Multiple Sclerosis

autoimmune disorder of the CNS, antibodies target and slowly destroy tissues in teh brain and spinal cord (demyelination)

2 strategies for treating MS_______

anti inflammatory to prevent attack s on the nervous system, treatments to relieve symptoms


used to treat MS, interferon 1 a and interferon 1 b

Side effects of immunostimulants:

flu- like syndrome (hay fever, chills, muscle aches), anxiety, discomfort at injection site, liver toxicity.

Muscle Spasms-tonic

single prolonged spasm

Muscle Spasms-clonic

multiple rapid repeated contractions


used to treat muscle spasms.


muscle groups in continuous state of contraction


involuntary muscle contractions that fore body parts into abnormal movements or postures.

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