Sympathetic Nervous System
-alpha and beta receptors
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Alpha 1 receptor stimulation causes
constriction of blood vessels, pupil dilation (high blood pressure)
Adrenergic Blockers (alpha and beta)
block the alpha or beta receptors so the receptors are not stimulated
Beta blocker side effects:
bradycardia, peripheral vasoconostriction, bronchospasm, wheezing, heart failure.
Cholinergic Agents (parasympathomimetic agents)
used to mimic actions of the parasympathetic nervous system
-not widely used due to severe adverse effects
Anticholinergics (muscarinic blockers)
prevent the action of acetylcholine, have opposite actions of the parasympathetic branch, mimic fight or flight response.
Side effects of Anticholinergics:
blurred vision, constipation, urinary retention, dryness of mouth, nose and throat.
Narcan is the most commonly used:
opioid antagonist. Its used for opioid overdose and postoperative opioid depression.
Max dose for Tylenol in a day is ______ because:
4,000mg perday, having more than this would cause liver toxicity
Goal of anti seizure therapy:
-supress neuronal activity just enough to prevent abnormal or repetitive firing. Minimize adverse effects of the medicine.
used for management of status epilepticus; also for nausea and vomiting, preoperative sedation, anxiety and insomnia
used for treatment of status epilepticus; also for anxiety related symptoms and muscle spasms
medical emergency that occurs when a seizure is repeated continuously and can lead to brain damage and death if left untreated.
(anti seizure med) desensitizes and prevents spread of disruptive electrical charges in the brain that produce seizures.
Dilantin SE are:
dysrhythmias, severe hypotension, hyperglycemia, ataxia, tritching, insomnia. Interacts with many other drugs! should be used with caution when taking herbal supplements.
antihistamine (H1 receptor blockers)
selectively block the actions of histamine thus alleviating allergic symptoms.
Metered Dose Inhalor (MDI)
needs to be timed with inhalation, mouth is rinsed out after MDI's to prevent absorption into the GI tract and decrease side effects.
_______ are the most effective class of antitussives. They act by _________
Opioids; by raising the cough threshold in the cough center, which decreases both the frequency and intensity of the cough. (ie, hydrocodone & codeine)
Beta Adrenergic Agents stimulate _______ within the smooth muschle of the ________
beta receptors; tracheobronchial tree
Anticholinergic side effects:
HA, dizziness, nausea, chest pain, dry mouth and throat irritation, tachycardia
Xanthienes side effects:
nausea, vomiting, CNS stimulation, tachycardia and or palpitations, cardiac arrhythmias.
Glucocorticoids (corticosteroids) are most effective in _________
treating long term prophylaxis of asthma
Parkinson drug groups:
Dopaminergic agents: increase dopamine levels
Anticholinergic agents: block the effects of acetylcholine
(Parkinson med) combination of carbidopa-levodopa therapy.
-carbidopa reduces the metabolism of levodopa peripherally so more levodopa reaches receptor sites in the brain.
loss of ability to perform tasks that require acetylcholine as the central neurotransmitter.
Acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitors_______
are most commonly used to treat alzheimer's because it causes acetylcholine receptors to increase
autoimmune disorder of the CNS, antibodies target and slowly destroy tissues in teh brain and spinal cord (demyelination)
2 strategies for treating MS_______
anti inflammatory to prevent attack s on the nervous system, treatments to relieve symptoms
Side effects of immunostimulants:
flu- like syndrome (hay fever, chills, muscle aches), anxiety, discomfort at injection site, liver toxicity.