40 terms

Chapter 2 Environmental Science

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Species
The different kinds of plants, animals, and microbes in the community
Population
Certain number of individuals that make up the interbreeding, reproducing group
Landscape
A group of interacting ecosystems in a given area.
Producer
Capture energy from the sun and from chemical reactions to convert carbon dioxide to organic matter
Carnivore
Meat eaters
Trophic level
Feeding levels, series of steps or levels
Ecology
Study of interactions of organisms with their environment and other organisms
Ecotone
Corridors between ecosystems
Association
Plant community with a definite composition, uniform habitat characteristics, and uniform plant growth.
Heterotroph
Consume organic material to obtain energy
Omnivore
Feed on both plants and animals
Autotroph
Produce their own organic material from in organic constitutions in their environment through the use of an external energy source
Parasites
Lives off its host and depends on the host
Consumer
Feed directly on others
Herbivore
Feed directly on producers
Detritus feeders/decomposers
Feed on detritus
Predator
Organism that does the feeding
Prey
Organism fed on
Pathogen
Virus that causes diseases
Biomass Pyramid
The structure that is obtained when the respective biomasses of producers, herbivores, and carnivores in an ecosystem are compared. Producers have the largest biomass, followed by herbivores and then carnivores.
Symbiosis
The intimate living together or association of two kinds of organisms
Mutualism
A close relationship between two organisms from which both derive a benefit
Commensalism
A relationship between two organisms in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected
Parasitism
A relationship between two organisms in which one organism benefits and the other is harmed
Abiotic Factors
Non-living parts of an organism's habitat
Resources
Biotic and abiotic fators tat are consumed by organisms
Conditions
Abiotic factors that vary in time and space, but are not used up by organisms
Ecological Niche
The job of an organism in a community
Law of limiting factors
Law stating that a system may be limited by the absence or minimum amount of any required factor.
Range of Tolerance
The range of conditions within which an organism or population can survive and reproduce.
Zone of stress
Regions where a species finds a conditions tolerable, but suboptimal. The species survives, but under stress
Optimal level
A comfortable level of alertness at which people perform most effectively at certain tasks
Synergistic effect
Two or more factors interacting in a way that causes an effect much greater than one would anticipate
Biome types
Prairies, deciduous forests, arctic tundras, deserts, and tropical rain forests.
Climate
A general description of the average temperature and rainfall conditions of a region over the course of a year
Temperature
Th average kinetic energy of the molecules
Altitude and latitude
Two factors that affect the climate
Microclimate
The actual conditions experienced by an organism in its particular location.
Organziation
atom-→molecule-→macromolecule-→organelles→cells-→tissues-→organs-→organ systems-→organism-→species--→population-→community-→ecosystem-→biome-→biosphere
Decompose
take apart
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