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A large temperature lapse rate would occur in a layer with

cold air above, warm air below

About what percent of Earth's water can be found in the oceans?


Why does a rising air parcel cool off?

It expands.

In which phase do water molecules have the lowest kinetic energy?

solid phase

Which of the following processes requires the highest RELEASE of energy from the water molecules?


When the dry and wet bulb temperatures measured by a psychrometer are equal, all but one of the following is true. Which one is false?

a rise in temperature would cause condensation

The amount of water vapor in the air (by volume) usually does not exceed:

100 %

If air at sea level with a temperature of 27 degrees C is forced up a mountain slope and the air's dew point at the condensation level is 14 degrees C, at what elevation will condensation begin?

1300 meters

The moist adiabatic rate is different from the dry adiabatic rate because:

latent heat is released inside a parcel of rising saturated air

If your environmental lapse rate is -7 C/km on a partly cloudy afternoon, then the atmosphere is said to be:

conditionally stable

If your environmental lapse rate is 17 C/km on a partly cloudy afternoon, then the atmosphere is said to be:

absolutely stable

An inversion represents an extremely stable atmosphere because a parcel of air that rises into an inversion will eventually become ________ and ________ dense than the air surrounding it.

colder, more

These two conditions, working together, will make the atmosphere the most unstable.

warm the surface and cool the air aloft

The atmosphere is most unstable when the temperature of the air ________ with height.

drops rapidly

The lapse rate of an air layer next to the ground is strongly influenced by

heating or cooling of the ground

Adiabatic processes are only important for air

which is rising or sinking

The vertical motions that occur when the air is unstable are termed


The buoyancy of a rising air parcel is greatly affected by

heat released if water vapor condenses

Natural convection and turbulence are most likely to occur when

temperature decreases rapidly with height

During the process of adiabatic cooling, the temperature decreases because the air has

lost heat to the colder air at higher altitudes.

Which of these pairs of processes, working together, will make the atmosphere most unstable?

warm the surface and cool the air aloft

A stable atmosphere is one in which

vertical motions are resisted

An increase in the lapse rate of an air layer results in the layer becoming

less stable

The temperature of rising air parcels ________ as they move upward.


The change in the free air temperature as you go up into the atmosphere is called

lapse rate

Relative humidity indicates the

nearness to saturation of the air

An instrument used to measure relative humidity is called a:


A wet-bulb thermometer and a dry-bulb thermometer are both parts of which meteorological instrument?


Which of the following requires the GREATEST RELEASE of latent heat energy into the atmosphere?


All of the following are properties that make water unique among other substances on Earth EXCEPT:


The air in Great Falls, Montana has a temperature of 5°C and a relative humidity of 50 percent. On the same afternoon, the air in Palm Springs, California has a temperature of 25°C and a relative humidity of 50 percent. What can be said about the amount of vapor in the air at these two cities?


As liquid water is evaporated into the atmosphere, heat energy is


During a clear, relatively calm day, the relative humidity will tend to ________ from sunrise to early afternoon.


Evaporation is a process which tends to keep temperatures cooler where it occurs. This is because evaporation

uses energy to change the phase of water instead of warming it

The heat released when water vapor condenses to form a cloud or when liquid droplets freeze in a cloud

helps the cloud to rise higher

Relative humidity depends on the water vapor present in the air and the


The most common reason why dew forms on the grass at night is that

temperatures are coolest in the grass

Relative humidity depends on the water vapor present in the air and the


A convergence of winds near the surface is associated with cloud production because it

forces the air to rise

When water vapor condenses, the heat involved

is released to the nearby air

Sinking or subsiding air cannot form clouds due to the

warming temperatures

If the air temperature remains constant, evaporating water into the air will ________ the dew point and ________ the relative humidity.

increase, decrease

The capacity of the air to hold water vapor

increases with an increase in temperature

As the temperature of air is reduced to its dew point, which of these is most likely to occur?


The most important process of cloud formation in the atmosphere is:

cooling by expansion of air

Which of the following will not cause air to become more unstable?

subsidence of an air column

Water vapor constitutes about this much of the atmosphere by volume.

0 to 4 percent

All of the following are liftingmechanisms in the atmosphere EXCEPT:


An air parcel rises over a mountain and cools adiabatically. Which lifting mechanism has acted on this parcel?


Which type of lifting mechanism results from warm air lifting over cold air?


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