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PCOM Anatomy 1 Lecture Weeks 1 and 2

Dr. Downie First 4 weeks of Anatomy/Physiology Pacific College of Oriental Medicine
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Integumentary System
Forms the external body covering
Composed of the skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair, and nails
Protects deep tissues from injury and synthesizes vitamin D
Skeletal System
Composed of bone, cartilage, and ligaments
Protects and supports body organs
Provides the framework for muscles
Site of blood cell formation
Stores minerals
Muscular System
Composed of muscles and tendons
Allow manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression
Maintains posture
Produces heat
Nervous System
Composed of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves
Is the fast-acting control system of the body
Responds to stimuli by activating muscles and glands
Cardiovascular System
Composed of the heart and blood vessels
The heart pumps blood
The blood vessels transport blood throughout the body
Lymphatic System
Composed of red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels
Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood
Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream
Houses white blood cells involved with immunity
Respiratory System
Composed of the nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
Keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
Digestive System
Composed of the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus, and liver
Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood
Eliminates indigestible foodstuffs as feces
Urinary System
Composed of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body
Regulates water, electrolyte, and pH balance of the blood
The three interdependent components of homeostatic control mechanisms are:
Receptor
Control Center
Effector
Negative feedback
The output shuts off the original stimulus
e.g. Regulation of blood glucose levels
Positive feedback
The output enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus
e.g. Regulation of blood clotting
Anatomical Position
Body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward, thumbs point away from body
Cephalad
Superior - toward the head
Caudad
Inferior - away from the head
Ventral
Anterior - toward the front
Dorsal
Posterior - toward the back
Medial
Toward the midline
Lateral
Away from the midline
Intermediate
Between a more medial and lateral structure
Proximal
closer to the origin of the body
Distal
farther from the origin of the body
Superficial
Toward the body surface
Deep
Away from the body surface
Axial
Head, neck, and trunk
Appendicular
Appendages or limbs
Sagittal or Parasagittal
Divides the body into right and left parts
Midsagittal
Divides the body into left and right parts from the midline
Coronal or Frontal
Divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
Transverse or Horizontal (Cross section)
Divides the body into superior and inferior parts
With reference to MRI and CT, this plane is referred to as axial
Oblique Section
Cuts made diagnally
Dorsal Cavity
Protects the nervous system
Contains the cranial and vertebral cavity
Cranial Cavity
Encases the brain
Vertebral Cavity
Runs within the vertebral column and encases the spinal cord
Ventral Cavity
Houses the internal organs (viscera), and is divided into two subdivisions: thoracic and abdominopelvic
Thoracic Cavity
Subdivided into pleural cavities, the mediastinum, and the pericardial cavity
Pleural Cavities
Each houses a lung
Pericardial Cavity
Encloses the hearts
Abdominopelvic Cavity
Subdivided into Abdominal cavity and Pelvic Cavity
Diaphragm
Separates the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity
Abdominal Cavity
Contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs
Pelvic Cavity
Lies within the pelvis and contains the bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum
Parietal Serosa
Lines internal body walls
Visceral Serosa
Covers the internal organs
Serous fluid
Separates the serosae
Uses of Water in the Body
CSF = 160 ml (1/2 a beer can)
Blood = 5 1/2 L
Interior of a cell
Na/K pump is an example of what membrane protein function?
Transport
Adenylate cyclase (ATP to cAMP) is an example of what membrane protein function?
Enzymatic activity
Protein hormones
Receptors for signal transduction
Leukocytes binding to endothelial cells perform what membrane protein function?
Intercellular adhesion
Immune system: T Cells recognizing Antigens and Antibodies perform what membrane protein function?
Attachment to cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM)
Plasma Membrane Surfaces
Differ in the kind and amount of lipids they contain
Glycolipids are found only in the outer membrane surface
20% of all membrane lipid is cholesterol
Cholesterol
Necessary for the integrity of the plasma membrane, i.e strengthens it
Tight junction
Impermeable junction the encircles the cell
Found in the stomach and pancreas
Desmosome
Anchoring junction scattered along the sides of cells
Found in the cardiac muscle cells
Gap junction
A nexus that allows chemical substances to pass between cells
Also known as electrical synapses
Found in the embryo and cardiac muscle cells
Simple diffusion
Nonpolar and lipid-soluble substances
Diffuse directly through the lipid bilayer
Diffuse through channel proteins (large lipids)
Facilitated diffusion
Transport of glucose, amino acids, and ions
Transported substances bind carrier proteins or pass through protein channels.
Carriers
Integral transmembrane proteins
Show specificity for certain polar molecules including sugars and amino acids
Osmosis
Occurs when the concentration of a solvent is different on opposite sides of a membrane
Diffusion of water across a Semipermeable membrane
Osmolarity
Total concentration of solute particles in a solution
Tonicity
How a solution affects cell volume
Isotonic
Same solute concentration as that of the cyosol
.9% solute
Hypertonic
Greater solute concentration than that of the cytosol
> .9%
Water moves out
Hypotonic
Lesser solute concetration than that of the cytosol
< .9%
Water moves in
Active Transport
Uses ATP to move solutes across a membrane
Requires carrier proteins
Symport system
Two substances are moves across a membrane in the same direction
Antiport system
Two substance are moves across a membrane in opposite directions
Primary Active Transport
Hydrolysis of ATP phosphorylates the transport protein causing a conformational change
Secondary Active Transport
Use of an exchange pump (such as the Na/K pump) indirectly to drive the transport of other solutes
i.e. Does not use ATP directly - Uses the gradient established by the pump
Vesicular transport
Transport of large particles and macromolecules across plasma membranes
Exocytosis
Moves substance from the cell interior to the extracellular space
Endocytosis
Enables large particles and macromolecules to enter the cell
Transcytosis
Moving substances into, across, and then out of a cell
Vesicular trafficking
Moving substances from one area in the cell to another
Phagocytosis
Pseudopods engulf solids and bring them into the cell's interior
Fluid-phase endocytosis
The plasma membrane invaginates, bringing extracellular fluid and solutes into the interior of the cell.
Receptor-mediated endocytosis
Clathrin-coated pits provide the main route for endocytosis and transcytosis
Non-clathrin-coated vesicles
Caveolae that are platforms for a variety of signaling molecules
Caveolae
Small vesicles in smooth muscle close to the cell membrane that aid in calcium storage, pouchlike infoldings that sequester bits of extracellular fluid containing a high concentration of Ca2+ close to the membrane; when calcium channels open here Ca2+ influx occurs rapidly
Clathrin
A fibrous protein found on the intracellular side of the plasma membrane (also associated with the Golgi complex) that helps invaginate the membrane. Typically cel surface receptors are associated with clathrin-coated pits at the plasma membrane binding of the ligan to the receptor trigger invagination (example: cholesterol uptake via lipoprotein endocytosis).
Simple diffusion
Passive membrane transport
e.g. Movement of dioxide through the membrane
Facilitated diffusion
Passive membrane transport
e.g. Movement of glucose into cells
Osmosis
Passive membrane transport
e.g. Movement of water in and out of cells (to higher salute concentration)
Movement of ions across membranes
Active transport of solutes
Neurotransmitter secretion
Exocytosis
White blood cell phagocytosis
Endocytosis
Fluid-phase endocytosis
Absorption by intestinal cells
Receptor-mediated endocytosis
Hormone and cholesterol uptake
Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs)
Anchor cells to the extracellular matrix
Assist in the movement of cells past one another
Rally protective white blood cells to injured or infected areas
Cytoplasm
Material between plasma membrane and the nucleus
Cytosol
Largely water with dissolved protein, salts, sugars, and other solutes
Cytoplasmic Organelles
Metabolic machinery of the cell
Inclusions
Chemical substances such as glycosomes, glycogen granules, and pigment
Mitochondria
Double membrane structure with shelf-like cristae
Provide most of the cell's ATP via aerobic cellular respiration
Contain their own DNA and RNA
Ribosomes
Granules containing protein and RNA
Site of protein synthesis
Free ribosomes synthesize soluble proteins
Membrane-bound ribosomes synthesize proteins to be incorporated into membranes
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Interconnected tubes and parallel membranes enclosing cisternae
Continuous with the nuclear membrane
Two varieties: Rough or smooth
Rough ER
External surface studded with ribosomes
Manufactures all secreted proteins
Responsible for the synthesis of integral membrane proteins and phospholipids for cell membranes
Smooth ER
Tubules arranges in a looping network
Catalyzes the following reactions in various organs of the body:
-In the liver: lipid and cholesterol metabolism, breakdown of glycogen and, along with the kidneys, detoxification of drugs
-In the testes: synthesis of steroid-based hormones
-In the intestinal cells: absorption, synthesis, and transport of fats
-In skeletal and cardiac muscle - storage and release of calcium
Protein synthesis (through translation)
Ribosome
Primary structure responsible for homeostasis
Plasma membrane
When a cell uses ATP to move a solute against it's concentration gradient
Active Transport
Golgi Apparatus
Stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum
Lysosomes
An organelle containing digestive enzymes
Endomembrane System
Plasma membrane, Endoplasmic reticulum plus Golgi apparatus; also lysosomes, vacuoles (connect tissue), and transport vesicles when present. A system of membranes that exchange material with one another.
Peroxisomes
Contain oxidase enzymes that detoxify alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, and other harmful chemicals
Cytoskeleton
A microscopic network of actin filaments and microtubules in the cytoplasm of many living cells that gives the cell shape and coherence
Microtubules
hollow tubes of protein about 25 nanometers in diameter, support the cell and moves organelles within the cell
Microfilaments
A solid rod of actin protein in the cytoplasm of almost all eukaryotic cells, making up part of the cytoskeleton and acting alone or with myosin to cause cell contraction
Intermediate fliaments
Tough, insoluble protein fibers with high tensile strength
Resist pulling forces on the cell and help form desmosomes
Range in diameter from 8-12 nanometers, larger than microfilaments but smaller than microtubules
Motor molecules
Proteins with energy from ATP that propel themselves along a protein filament. is bound to a vesicle, and carries the vesicle somewhere
Centrioles
Consist of two short cylinders of microtubules at right angles to each other and are situated in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope
Help organize cell division
Cilia
Short structures projecting from a cell and containing bundles of microtubules that move a cell through its surroundings or move fluid over the cell's surface
Flagella
Whiplike tails found in one-celled organisms to aid in movement
In humans, seen with spermatozoa
Nucleus
In a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-bound organelle that contains the cell's DNA and that has a role in processes such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction
Nuclear Envelope
The double-membrane system surrounding the nucleus of eukaryotic cell
The outer membrane is typically continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum
The inner membrane is lined with the nuclear lamina, which maintains the shape of the nucleus
Nucleoli
dense masses of RNA and protein that manufacture ribosomes, several of these are located in the nucleus.
Chromatin
The readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins
Protein synthesis
Transcription and translation
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
Carries the genetic information from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm
Transfer RNAs (tRNAs)
bound to amino acids base pair with the codons of mRNA at the ribosome to begin the process of protein synthesis
Codon
A specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acid
Anticodon
Group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
A structural component of ribosomes
Transcription
The organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
Genetic Code
The ordering of nucleotides in DNA molecules that carries the genetic information in living cells
Information Transfer from DNA to RNA
DNA triplets are transcribed into mRNA codons by RNA polymerase
Codons base pair with tRNA anticodons at the ribosomes
Amino acids are peptide bonded at the ribosomes to form polypeptide chains
Start and stop codons are used in initiating and ending translation
Smallest unit of life
Cell