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Dr. Downie First 4 weeks of Anatomy/Physiology Pacific College of Oriental Medicine

Integumentary System

Forms the external body covering
Composed of the skin, sweat glands, oil glands, hair, and nails
Protects deep tissues from injury and synthesizes vitamin D

Skeletal System

Composed of bone, cartilage, and ligaments
Protects and supports body organs
Provides the framework for muscles
Site of blood cell formation
Stores minerals

Muscular System

Composed of muscles and tendons
Allow manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression
Maintains posture
Produces heat

Nervous System

Composed of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves
Is the fast-acting control system of the body
Responds to stimuli by activating muscles and glands

Cardiovascular System

Composed of the heart and blood vessels
The heart pumps blood
The blood vessels transport blood throughout the body

Lymphatic System

Composed of red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels
Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood
Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream
Houses white blood cells involved with immunity

Respiratory System

Composed of the nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
Keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide

Digestive System

Composed of the oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus, and liver
Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood
Eliminates indigestible foodstuffs as feces

Urinary System

Composed of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body
Regulates water, electrolyte, and pH balance of the blood

The three interdependent components of homeostatic control mechanisms are:

Control Center

Negative feedback

The output shuts off the original stimulus
e.g. Regulation of blood glucose levels

Positive feedback

The output enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus
e.g. Regulation of blood clotting

Anatomical Position

Body erect, feet slightly apart, palms facing forward, thumbs point away from body


Superior - toward the head


Inferior - away from the head


Anterior - toward the front


Posterior - toward the back


Toward the midline


Away from the midline


Between a more medial and lateral structure


closer to the origin of the body


farther from the origin of the body


Toward the body surface


Away from the body surface


Head, neck, and trunk


Appendages or limbs

Sagittal or Parasagittal

Divides the body into right and left parts


Divides the body into left and right parts from the midline

Coronal or Frontal

Divides the body into anterior and posterior parts

Transverse or Horizontal (Cross section)

Divides the body into superior and inferior parts
With reference to MRI and CT, this plane is referred to as axial

Oblique Section

Cuts made diagnally

Dorsal Cavity

Protects the nervous system
Contains the cranial and vertebral cavity

Cranial Cavity

Encases the brain

Vertebral Cavity

Runs within the vertebral column and encases the spinal cord

Ventral Cavity

Houses the internal organs (viscera), and is divided into two subdivisions: thoracic and abdominopelvic

Thoracic Cavity

Subdivided into pleural cavities, the mediastinum, and the pericardial cavity

Pleural Cavities

Each houses a lung

Pericardial Cavity

Encloses the hearts

Abdominopelvic Cavity

Subdivided into Abdominal cavity and Pelvic Cavity


Separates the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity

Abdominal Cavity

Contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs

Pelvic Cavity

Lies within the pelvis and contains the bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum

Parietal Serosa

Lines internal body walls

Visceral Serosa

Covers the internal organs

Serous fluid

Separates the serosae

Uses of Water in the Body

CSF = 160 ml (1/2 a beer can)
Blood = 5 1/2 L
Interior of a cell

Na/K pump is an example of what membrane protein function?


Adenylate cyclase (ATP to cAMP) is an example of what membrane protein function?

Enzymatic activity

Protein hormones

Receptors for signal transduction

Leukocytes binding to endothelial cells perform what membrane protein function?

Intercellular adhesion

Immune system: T Cells recognizing Antigens and Antibodies perform what membrane protein function?

Attachment to cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM)

Plasma Membrane Surfaces

Differ in the kind and amount of lipids they contain
Glycolipids are found only in the outer membrane surface
20% of all membrane lipid is cholesterol


Necessary for the integrity of the plasma membrane, i.e strengthens it

Tight junction

Impermeable junction the encircles the cell
Found in the stomach and pancreas


Anchoring junction scattered along the sides of cells
Found in the cardiac muscle cells

Gap junction

A nexus that allows chemical substances to pass between cells
Also known as electrical synapses
Found in the embryo and cardiac muscle cells

Simple diffusion

Nonpolar and lipid-soluble substances
Diffuse directly through the lipid bilayer
Diffuse through channel proteins (large lipids)

Facilitated diffusion

Transport of glucose, amino acids, and ions
Transported substances bind carrier proteins or pass through protein channels.


Integral transmembrane proteins
Show specificity for certain polar molecules including sugars and amino acids


Occurs when the concentration of a solvent is different on opposite sides of a membrane
Diffusion of water across a Semipermeable membrane


Total concentration of solute particles in a solution


How a solution affects cell volume


Same solute concentration as that of the cyosol
.9% solute


Greater solute concentration than that of the cytosol
> .9%
Water moves out


Lesser solute concetration than that of the cytosol
< .9%
Water moves in

Active Transport

Uses ATP to move solutes across a membrane
Requires carrier proteins

Symport system

Two substances are moves across a membrane in the same direction

Antiport system

Two substance are moves across a membrane in opposite directions

Primary Active Transport

Hydrolysis of ATP phosphorylates the transport protein causing a conformational change

Secondary Active Transport

Use of an exchange pump (such as the Na/K pump) indirectly to drive the transport of other solutes
i.e. Does not use ATP directly - Uses the gradient established by the pump

Vesicular transport

Transport of large particles and macromolecules across plasma membranes


Moves substance from the cell interior to the extracellular space


Enables large particles and macromolecules to enter the cell


Moving substances into, across, and then out of a cell

Vesicular trafficking

Moving substances from one area in the cell to another


Pseudopods engulf solids and bring them into the cell's interior

Fluid-phase endocytosis

The plasma membrane invaginates, bringing extracellular fluid and solutes into the interior of the cell.

Receptor-mediated endocytosis

Clathrin-coated pits provide the main route for endocytosis and transcytosis

Non-clathrin-coated vesicles

Caveolae that are platforms for a variety of signaling molecules


Small vesicles in smooth muscle close to the cell membrane that aid in calcium storage, pouchlike infoldings that sequester bits of extracellular fluid containing a high concentration of Ca2+ close to the membrane; when calcium channels open here Ca2+ influx occurs rapidly


A fibrous protein found on the intracellular side of the plasma membrane (also associated with the Golgi complex) that helps invaginate the membrane. Typically cel surface receptors are associated with clathrin-coated pits at the plasma membrane binding of the ligan to the receptor trigger invagination (example: cholesterol uptake via lipoprotein endocytosis).

Simple diffusion

Passive membrane transport
e.g. Movement of dioxide through the membrane

Facilitated diffusion

Passive membrane transport
e.g. Movement of glucose into cells


Passive membrane transport
e.g. Movement of water in and out of cells (to higher salute concentration)

Movement of ions across membranes

Active transport of solutes

Neurotransmitter secretion


White blood cell phagocytosis


Fluid-phase endocytosis

Absorption by intestinal cells

Receptor-mediated endocytosis

Hormone and cholesterol uptake

Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs)

Anchor cells to the extracellular matrix
Assist in the movement of cells past one another
Rally protective white blood cells to injured or infected areas


Material between plasma membrane and the nucleus


Largely water with dissolved protein, salts, sugars, and other solutes

Cytoplasmic Organelles

Metabolic machinery of the cell


Chemical substances such as glycosomes, glycogen granules, and pigment


Double membrane structure with shelf-like cristae
Provide most of the cell's ATP via aerobic cellular respiration
Contain their own DNA and RNA


Granules containing protein and RNA
Site of protein synthesis
Free ribosomes synthesize soluble proteins
Membrane-bound ribosomes synthesize proteins to be incorporated into membranes

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

Interconnected tubes and parallel membranes enclosing cisternae
Continuous with the nuclear membrane
Two varieties: Rough or smooth

Rough ER

External surface studded with ribosomes
Manufactures all secreted proteins
Responsible for the synthesis of integral membrane proteins and phospholipids for cell membranes

Smooth ER

Tubules arranges in a looping network
Catalyzes the following reactions in various organs of the body:
-In the liver: lipid and cholesterol metabolism, breakdown of glycogen and, along with the kidneys, detoxification of drugs
-In the testes: synthesis of steroid-based hormones
-In the intestinal cells: absorption, synthesis, and transport of fats
-In skeletal and cardiac muscle - storage and release of calcium

Protein synthesis (through translation)


Primary structure responsible for homeostasis

Plasma membrane

When a cell uses ATP to move a solute against it's concentration gradient

Active Transport

Golgi Apparatus

Stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum


An organelle containing digestive enzymes

Endomembrane System

Plasma membrane, Endoplasmic reticulum plus Golgi apparatus; also lysosomes, vacuoles (connect tissue), and transport vesicles when present. A system of membranes that exchange material with one another.


Contain oxidase enzymes that detoxify alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, and other harmful chemicals


A microscopic network of actin filaments and microtubules in the cytoplasm of many living cells that gives the cell shape and coherence


hollow tubes of protein about 25 nanometers in diameter, support the cell and moves organelles within the cell


A solid rod of actin protein in the cytoplasm of almost all eukaryotic cells, making up part of the cytoskeleton and acting alone or with myosin to cause cell contraction

Intermediate fliaments

Tough, insoluble protein fibers with high tensile strength
Resist pulling forces on the cell and help form desmosomes
Range in diameter from 8-12 nanometers, larger than microfilaments but smaller than microtubules

Motor molecules

Proteins with energy from ATP that propel themselves along a protein filament. is bound to a vesicle, and carries the vesicle somewhere


Consist of two short cylinders of microtubules at right angles to each other and are situated in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope
Help organize cell division


Short structures projecting from a cell and containing bundles of microtubules that move a cell through its surroundings or move fluid over the cell's surface


Whiplike tails found in one-celled organisms to aid in movement
In humans, seen with spermatozoa


In a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-bound organelle that contains the cell's DNA and that has a role in processes such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction

Nuclear Envelope

The double-membrane system surrounding the nucleus of eukaryotic cell
The outer membrane is typically continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum
The inner membrane is lined with the nuclear lamina, which maintains the shape of the nucleus


dense masses of RNA and protein that manufacture ribosomes, several of these are located in the nucleus.


The readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins

Protein synthesis

Transcription and translation

Messenger RNA (mRNA)

Carries the genetic information from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm

Transfer RNAs (tRNAs)

bound to amino acids base pair with the codons of mRNA at the ribosome to begin the process of protein synthesis


A specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acid


Group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

A structural component of ribosomes


The organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA

Genetic Code

The ordering of nucleotides in DNA molecules that carries the genetic information in living cells

Information Transfer from DNA to RNA

DNA triplets are transcribed into mRNA codons by RNA polymerase
Codons base pair with tRNA anticodons at the ribosomes
Amino acids are peptide bonded at the ribosomes to form polypeptide chains
Start and stop codons are used in initiating and ending translation

Smallest unit of life


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