How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

110 terms

Ch 9 Milady's 2008 Properties of the Hair & Scalp

STUDY
PLAY
Trichology
the scientific study of the hair, it's diseases, and its care
Integument
The hair, skin and nails is collectively known as the
Root
Shaft
A mature stand of hair is divided into what 2 parts?
Root
located below the surface of the scalp
Shaft
the portion of the hair that projects above the skin
Follicle
Bulb
Dermal Papilla
Arrector Pili
Sebaceous Glands
What are the 5 structures of the hair root?
Dermal Papilla
Which part of the root contains the blood and nerve supply that provides the nutrients needed for hair growth?
Hair Bulb
*Thickened, club shape structure that forms the lower part of the hair root
*Lowest part of a hair strand
Follicle
*Tube-like depression or pocket in the skin or scalp that contains the hair root
*Surrounds the dermal papilla
Arrector Pili
Which muscle when contracted cause goosebumps?
Sebum
An oily substance secreted from the sebaceous glands that lubricate the hair and skin
Cuticle
Cortex
Medulla
What are the 3 main layers of the hair shaft?
Cuticle
What is the outermost layer of the hair?
Cuticle layer
*Provides a barrier that protects the inner structure of hair
*Creates shine and silkiness
*Looks like shingles on a roof
Protects hair from penetration & prevents damage to the hair fiber
What does a healthy cuticle layer protect?
In order to penetrate the cuticle layer, because a high pH swells the cuticle causing it to lift and expose the cortex
Why must haircolors,permanent waving solutions and chemical hair relaxers have an alkaline pH?
The middle layer
Which layer of the hair is the cortex?
90%
What % of weight of the hair comes from the cortex?
Cortex
In what layer of the hair do changes involving oxidation haircolor, wet setting thermal styling, permanent waving and chemicle hair relaxing take place?
Medulla
The innermost layer of the hair that is composed of round cells
Protein
Hair is composed of ________ that grows from cells originating within the hair follicle.
Keratinization
The maturation of these cells is a process called
Living cells mature through Keratinization. As they mature, they fill up with keratin, then move upward, lose their nucleus and die.
Explain why hair is not a living thing.
Carbon 51%
Oxygen 21%
Hydrogen 6%
Nitrogen 17%
Sulfur 5%
What are the main elements that make up human hair and their percentages in normal hair?
*COHNS Elements*
Amino Acid
*The unit of structure that builds protein
*Linked together end to end like pop beads
Helix
The spiral shape of a coiled protein
Peptide Bond
*The chemical bond that links amino acids
*Also called an end bond
Polypeptide Chain
*A long chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds
*Cross linked like the rungs on ladder by 3 different kinds of salt bonds
Hydrogen Bond
Salt Bond
Disulfide Bond
Polypeptide chains are cross-linked together using 3 different types of cross links called
Hydrogen Bond
*A weak physical side bond that is easily broken by water or heat
*Weakest of all bonds
*Creates a TEMPORARY physical change in the hair
*Account for 1/3 of the hair's overall strength
Salt Bonds
*Weak , TEMP side bonds between adjacent polypeptide chains
*Greatly affected by changes in pH
*Cause the hair to sell and the cuticle to lift
Disulfide
*A strong chemical side bond that joins the sulfur atom of 2 neighboring cysteine amino acids to create cystine
*2nd strongest bond in hair, also called a sulfur bond
*NOT broken by heat or water
*Altered only by salon chemicals. Permanent waving, etc solutions break and rearrange these bonds
Lanthionine Bonds
*The bonds created when disulfide bonds are broken by hydroxide chemical hair relaxers after the relaxer is rinsed from the hair.
*Broken PERMANENTLY and can never be reformed
Cortex
The layer of the hair that all natural color is located in
Melanin
tiny grains of pigment that give natural color to hair
Eumalanin
Pheomelanin
What are the 2 types of melanin?
Eumalanin
provides brown and black color to hair
Pheomelanin
provides color ranging from red and ginger to yellow/blond tones
Wave Pattern
Refers to the shape of the hair strand and is described as straight, wavy, curly or extremely curly
Genetics
Natural wave pattern is the result of _______.
Oval
In extremely curly hair, cross sections are highly _____ and vary in shape and thickness along their length.
Texture
Porosity
Elasticity
Density
What are the 4 most important factors to consider in hair analysis?
Texture
Thickness/diameter of the individual hair strand
Porosity
The ability to absorb moisture
Elasticity
The ability of the hair to stretch and return to it's original length without breaking
Density
measures the number of hair strands on 1 square inch of the scalp
Course
Medium
Fine
What are the 3 classifications of hair texture?
Course
*Has largest diameter
*More difficult to process
Medium
*Most common
*No special problems or concerns
Fine
*Smallest diameter
*Most fragile
*Easily processes
Low
Medium
High
Hair density can be classified as?
2200
What is the average hair density per square inch?
100,000
How many hairs does the average head contain?
The condition of the cuticle layer
What is the degree of porosity directly related to?
Porous
______ hair has a raised cuticle that easily absorbs moisture
Less akaline solutions
Chemical services performed on overly porous hair require what type of solutions?
Normal
Hair with average porosity is considered ______.
Overly porous hair
What type of hair is damaged, dry, fragile and brittle?
How to check for porosity
Take a strand from 4 different areas (front, hairline, temple, crown and nape). Hold the strand with one hand while sliding thumb and forefinger of other hand from end to scalp
If it feels smooth...
and the cuticle is compact, dense and hard it is considered resistant.
If you can feel a slight roughness...
it is considered porous.
If the hair feels very rough or dry or breaks...
it is considered highly porous and may have been overly processed.
50%
Wet hair with normal elasticity will stretch up to ____ of it's original length and return without breaking.
20%
How much does dry hair stretch?
False
Hair follicles always from perpendicular (90 degree angle) to the scalp
Hair stream
Hair following in the same direction
Whorl
Hair that forms in a circular pattern
Cowlick
A tuft of hair that stands straight up
Overactive sebaceous glands
Improper shampooing
What causes oily hair and scalp?
Inactive sebaceous glands
Excessive shampooing
Dry air/climate
What cause dry hair and scalp?
Vellus
Terminal
What are the 2 types of hair found on the body?
Vellus
*Short, fine and downy
*Not pigmented
*Almost never has a medulla
*Usually found on infants and young children
*In adults, it's found on most areas of body, not including scalp
Terminal
*Courser than vellus
*It's pigmented with the exception of grey hair
*Usually has a medulla
Scalp
Legs
Arms
Pelvis area
Where is terminal hair found?
Anagen
Catagen
Telogen
What are the 3 phases of a hair cycle?
*A.C.T.*
Anagen
*The growth phase of hair (when new hair is produced)
*Generally last from 3-5 years but can last up to 10 years
90%
What percentage of hair is in the anagen phase at any given time?
Catagen
*The brief transition period between the growth and resting phases
*Signals the end of the growth phase
*Last from 1 -2 weeks
Telegen
*The resting phase
*Final phase and lasts until the fully grown hair is shed
*Last approx. 3-6 months
1/2 inch
What is the average growth of healthy hair per month?
1%
What percentage is in the catagen phase at any one time?
10 %
What percentage is in the telogen phase at any one tim
Alopecia
Abnormal hair loss
Androgenic/Androgenetic alopecia
*Causes miniaturization of terminal hair, converting it to vellus
*The result of genetics, age and hormonal changes
Male Pattern Baldness
*In men, Androgentic Alopecia is known as______.
*It usually progresses to the familiar horseshoe shaped fringe of hair.
40%
How many people does androgenic alopecia affect in the United States?
Alopecia Areata
*The sudden falling out of hair in round patches or baldness in spots
*May occur on the scalp and elsewear on the body
Postpartum Alopecia
A temporary hair loss experienced at the conclusion of a pregnancy
Minoxidil (Men & Women)
Finasteride (Men Only)
What are the only 2 products that have been proven to stimulate hair growth and are approved by the FDA?
Transplants
*Most common surgical procedure for hair loss
*Consist of removing small sections of hair usually from the back and transplanting into the bald area
Wigs
Toupees
Hair Weaving
Hair Extensions
What non-medical options can a hairstylists offer to counter hair loss?
Canites
Technical term for grey hair
Ringed Hair
A variety of canites characterized by alternating bands of grey and pigmented hair through out the length of the hair strand.
Hypertrichosis
*Also known as Hirsuties
*A condition of abnormal hair growth
*Characterized by the growth terminal hair in areas where only vellus hair grows
*ex, mustache, beard on women
Trichoptilosis
Technical term for split ends
Trichoptilosis Nodosa
*Knotted hair
*Characterized by brittleness and the formation of nodular swellings along the hair shaft.
*Hair breaks easily, and the broken fibers spread out like a brush along the hair shaft
Monilethrix
*Technical term for beaded hair
*The hair breaks easily between the beads or nodes.
Fragilitas Crinium
*Technical term for brittle hair
*The hairs may split at any part of it's length.
Congential
Aquired
What are the 2 types of canities?
Pityriasis
Medical term for dandruff
Tinea
Medical term for ringworm
Tinea Capitis
*Ringworm of the scalp
*Fungal infection characterized by red papules or spots at the opening of the hair follicles
Scabies
Caused by a parasite called a mite that burrows under the skin
Pediculosis Capitis
Head lice
Furuncle
An acute, localized bacterial infection of the hair follicle
Carbuncle
An inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue caused by staphylococci
Malassezia
naturally occuring fungus that is present on all human skin, and is responsible for dandruff
Pityriasis Capitis Simplex
technical term for classic dandruff, characterized by scalp irritation, large flake and itchy scalp
Pityriasis Steatoides
a severe type of dandruff characterized by an accumulation of greasy or waxy scalp scales mixed with sebum
Tinea
*Characterized by itching, scales and sometimes painful circular lesions
*Very contagious