What are the 5 structures of the hair root?
Which part of the root contains the blood and nerve supply that provides the nutrients needed for hair growth?
*Thickened, club shape structure that forms the lower part of the hair root
*Lowest part of a hair strand
*Tube-like depression or pocket in the skin or scalp that contains the hair root
*Surrounds the dermal papilla
*Provides a barrier that protects the inner structure of hair
*Creates shine and silkiness
*Looks like shingles on a roof
Protects hair from penetration & prevents damage to the hair fiber
What does a healthy cuticle layer protect?
In order to penetrate the cuticle layer, because a high pH swells the cuticle causing it to lift and expose the cortex
Why must haircolors,permanent waving solutions and chemical hair relaxers have an alkaline pH?
In what layer of the hair do changes involving oxidation haircolor, wet setting thermal styling, permanent waving and chemicle hair relaxing take place?
Living cells mature through Keratinization. As they mature, they fill up with keratin, then move upward, lose their nucleus and die.
Explain why hair is not a living thing.
What are the main elements that make up human hair and their percentages in normal hair?
*A long chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds
*Cross linked like the rungs on ladder by 3 different kinds of salt bonds
Polypeptide chains are cross-linked together using 3 different types of cross links called
*A weak physical side bond that is easily broken by water or heat
*Weakest of all bonds
*Creates a TEMPORARY physical change in the hair
*Account for 1/3 of the hair's overall strength
*Weak , TEMP side bonds between adjacent polypeptide chains
*Greatly affected by changes in pH
*Cause the hair to sell and the cuticle to lift
*A strong chemical side bond that joins the sulfur atom of 2 neighboring cysteine amino acids to create cystine
*2nd strongest bond in hair, also called a sulfur bond
*NOT broken by heat or water
*Altered only by salon chemicals. Permanent waving, etc solutions break and rearrange these bonds
*The bonds created when disulfide bonds are broken by hydroxide chemical hair relaxers after the relaxer is rinsed from the hair.
*Broken PERMANENTLY and can never be reformed
Refers to the shape of the hair strand and is described as straight, wavy, curly or extremely curly
In extremely curly hair, cross sections are highly _____ and vary in shape and thickness along their length.
What are the 4 most important factors to consider in hair analysis?
Less akaline solutions
Chemical services performed on overly porous hair require what type of solutions?
How to check for porosity
Take a strand from 4 different areas (front, hairline, temple, crown and nape). Hold the strand with one hand while sliding thumb and forefinger of other hand from end to scalp
If the hair feels very rough or dry or breaks...
it is considered highly porous and may have been overly processed.
Wet hair with normal elasticity will stretch up to ____ of it's original length and return without breaking.
*Short, fine and downy
*Almost never has a medulla
*Usually found on infants and young children
*In adults, it's found on most areas of body, not including scalp
*Courser than vellus
*It's pigmented with the exception of grey hair
*Usually has a medulla
*The growth phase of hair (when new hair is produced)
*Generally last from 3-5 years but can last up to 10 years
*The brief transition period between the growth and resting phases
*Signals the end of the growth phase
*Last from 1 -2 weeks
*The resting phase
*Final phase and lasts until the fully grown hair is shed
*Last approx. 3-6 months
*Causes miniaturization of terminal hair, converting it to vellus
*The result of genetics, age and hormonal changes
Male Pattern Baldness
*In men, Androgentic Alopecia is known as______.
*It usually progresses to the familiar horseshoe shaped fringe of hair.
*The sudden falling out of hair in round patches or baldness in spots
*May occur on the scalp and elsewear on the body
Minoxidil (Men & Women)
Finasteride (Men Only)
What are the only 2 products that have been proven to stimulate hair growth and are approved by the FDA?
*Most common surgical procedure for hair loss
*Consist of removing small sections of hair usually from the back and transplanting into the bald area
What non-medical options can a hairstylists offer to counter hair loss?
A variety of canites characterized by alternating bands of grey and pigmented hair through out the length of the hair strand.
*Also known as Hirsuties
*A condition of abnormal hair growth
*Characterized by the growth terminal hair in areas where only vellus hair grows
*ex, mustache, beard on women
*Characterized by brittleness and the formation of nodular swellings along the hair shaft.
*Hair breaks easily, and the broken fibers spread out like a brush along the hair shaft
*Technical term for brittle hair
*The hairs may split at any part of it's length.
*Ringworm of the scalp
*Fungal infection characterized by red papules or spots at the opening of the hair follicles
naturally occuring fungus that is present on all human skin, and is responsible for dandruff
Pityriasis Capitis Simplex
technical term for classic dandruff, characterized by scalp irritation, large flake and itchy scalp
a severe type of dandruff characterized by an accumulation of greasy or waxy scalp scales mixed with sebum