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Sensation and Perception

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sensation
The immediate response in the brain caused by excitation of a sensory organ is called ___________.
data-reduction system
A ______ _________ __________ is a system that selects, analyzes, and condenses information. Eyes, ears, tongues, noses and skin are all examples of this.
Transduction
_______ is the process of converting one king of energy to another.
transducer
A _______ is a device that converts one kind of energy into another. Sensory receptors are examples of these. They usually convert it to electrical and chemical energy.
Localization of function
_________ __ ________ means that the type of sensation you experience depends on the area of the brain that is activated.
Psychophysics
________ is the study of sensation.
Absolute threshold
The _________ __________ is the minimum amount of physical energy needed in order to produce a sensation.
perceptual defense
Unpleasant stimuli may raise the threshold for recognition. The resistance to perceiving threatening or disturbing stimuli, such as "dirty" words, is called ________ ________.
limen
Anytime information is processed below the normal _____ (the threshold or limit) for awareness, it is subliminal.
Subliminal perception
_______ _________ is the perception of a stimulus below the threshold for conscious recognition.
just noticeable difference (JND)
How much a stimulus must change for it to be noticed is called a _____ _________ ________.
Weber's law
JND's led to________ _____, which states that the amount of change needed to produce a JND is a constant proportion of the original stimulus intensity.
visual spectrum
The _____ _______ of electromagnetic radiation receives and converts wave lengths into color.
400 (nanometers)
Starting at about ____ (short), the color seen is red.
700 (nanometers)
Ending at about _____ (long), the color seen is violet.
Hue
____ is the basic ways color is categorized.
Saturation
_________ is the degree of a color's purity.
Brightness
________ is the intensity of colors.
cornea
The front of the eye is covered by a clear membrane called the _____.
lens
The ____ bends the light that enters the eye.
retina
The _____ is the back of the eye.
accommodation
Smaller adjustments in focusing occur as the shape of the lens is altered by a series of muscles, a process called ________ - changes in the shape of the lens of the eye.
hyperopia
If the eye is too short, nearby objects cannot be focused, but distant objects are clear. This is called ______, or farsightedness.
myopia
If the eye is too long, the image falls shot of the retina, and distant objects cannot be focused. This results in _____, or nearsightedness.
astigmatism
When the cornea is misshapen, part of the visual field will be focused and one part will be fuzzy. In this case, the eye has more than one focal point, a problem called _________.
presbyopia
As people age, the lens becomes less flexible and less able to accommodate. This results in _____, old vision or farsightedness with age.
iris
The ____ is the colored circular muscle that expands and contracts.
pupil
As the iris dilates and constricts, it changes the size of the _____, where light enters.
rods
Photo-receptors called ____, numbering about 100 million, are unable to detect colors. They detect black and white and are sensitive to light and movement.
cones
The _____, numbering about 6.5 million in each eye, work best in bright light. They also produce color sensations and pick up fine details.
fovea
50,000 cones are located in the ______, a cup-shaped area located in the retina. Here, visual acuity is at its greatest.
Peripheral vision
Rods make up your ______ _______. Areas outside the fovea also get light, which creates this type of vision. It is sensitive to motion, but sees in black and white because it is considered "rod vision."
blind spot
Each eye has a ____ _____ because there are no receptors where the optic nerve leaves the eye.
visual acuity
The rods and cones affect _____ ______, or sharpness.
trichromatic theory
The _________ ______ of color holds that there are three types of cones, each most sensitive to red, green, or blue. Other colors are produced through combinations of these.
Opponent-process theory
_______ ______ ______ states that vision analyzes color into "either-or" messages. It is assumed that the visual system can produce messages for red or green, blue or yellow, black or white.
color-blind
A person who is ____ ____ cannot perceive colors. The person either lacks cones or has cones that do not work properly.
color weakness
In ____ ______, the person is unable to distinguish some colors.
Ishihara test
The ______ ___ tests for color-blindness or color weakness.
Dark adaptation
____ _________ is the dramatic increase in retinal sensitivity to light that occurs after a person enters the dark. With this, the eye becomes 100,000 times more sensitive to light within about 45 minutes.
Night vision
______ _____ is due mainly to an increase in rhodopsin.
Rhodopsin
_______ is the rod pigment that produces night vision.
Compressions and rarefactions
Sound travels in a series of invisible waves in the air of peaks and valleys, or ________ and _______.
Frequency
______ of sound waves determines their pitch.
amplitude
The _______ determines loudness.
pinna
The _____ is the visible, external part of the ear. It acts like a funnel to concentrate sounds.
tympanic membrane (eardrum)
After they are guided into the ear, sound waves collide with the _______ _____, which is set in motion.
auditory ossicles
The bones in the inner ear are called the _____ _______.
Malleus, incus, and stapes
The bones in the ear are the hammer, anvil, and stirrup, or the ______, ______, and _______.
oval window
The stapes is attached to a membrane on the cochlea called the ____ _______. As it moves back and forth, it make waves in a fluid inside the cochlea.
cochlea
The _____ is a snail-shaped organ that makes up the inner ear. It is where hearing really occurs.
organ of Corti
The _____ __ _____ makes up the inner part of the cochlea. Hair cells are apart of this structure.
stereocilia
Bristles atop each hair cell in the inner ear are called _______. The hair cells brush up against the tectoral membrane when waves ripple through the fluid surrounding the organ of Corti. Impulses are fired from the when the hair cells are brushed.
frequency theory
The _______ _____ of hearing states that as pitch rises, nerve impulses of the same frequency are fed into the auditory nerves.
place theory
The _____ ______ states that higher and lower tones excite specific areas of the cochlea.
Conduction deafness
______ _______ occurs when there is poor transfer of sounds from the eardrum to the inner ear.
Nerve deafness
_____ _______ results from damage to the hair cells or auditory nerve.
Stimulation deafness
_______ ______ occurs when very loud sounds damage the hair cells in the cochlea.
cochlear implant
A artificial hearing system is making is possible for some people with nerve deafness to break through the wall of silence, called a _____ ______.
Tinnitus
______ is the ringing or buzzing sensation in the ears that results from exposure to high noises.
Olfaction
______ is the sense of smell.
Gustation
________ is the sense of taste.
Anosmia
_____ is the inability to smell.
lock and key theory
Researchers discovered that different-shaped "holes" or "pockets" exist on the surface of olfactory receptors. Like a piece fits in a puzzle, chemicals produce odors when part of a molecule matches a hole of the same shape. This is called the _____ __ _____ _____.
pheromones
In humans, it is believed that ________ are feelings of well-being, attraction, aversion, unease, or anxiety.
Taste buds
_____ _____ are receptors for gustation.
Somesthetic senses
_______ ______ are sensational produced by the skin, muscles, joints, viscera, and organs of balance.
kinesthetic organs
The ______ _____ are receptors in muscles and joints that detect body position and movement.
vestibular system
The ______ ______, located in the inner ear, is responsible for balance and detecting gravity and acceleration.
Skin receptors
______ _______ produce at least five different sensations: light touch, pressure, pain, cold, and warmth.
pain
The skin has the most nerve endings for ____, at about 3 million.
Visceral pain
_______ ____ is felt on the surface of the body that is stimulated by pain fibers in internal organs.
Referred pain
______ _____ is pain felt on the surface of the body, away from the point of origin.
Somatic
_______ pain is sharp pain.
warning system
Somatic pain that is carried by large nerve fibers is the body's ______ ______. Without this, we would be unable to detect or prevent injury.
reminding system
Somatic pain that is carried by small nerve fibers is slower, nagging, aching, widespread, and unpleasant. This is the body's _______ ______. It reminds the brain that the body has been hurt.
Sensory adaptation
_______ ______ is a decrease in sensory response to an unchanging stimulus.
boiled-frog syndrome
The _____ ____ _______ states that changes go unnoticed when they are gradually increased.
Selective attention
_____ ______ is the voluntary focus on a specific sensory input.
sensory gating
In particular, _____ _____ refers to facilitating or blocking sensory messages in the spinal cord.
Acupuncture
_______ is the Chinese medical art of reliving pain and illness by inserting needles into the body.
beta-endorphin
To combat the pain of acupuncture, the brain causes the pituitary gland to release a painkilling chemical called ____ ______, which is similar to morphine.
pain
People can reduce the amount of ____ they receive in anxiety, control, attention, and interpretation.
Sensory-conflict theory
________ ______ _______ states that motion sickness results from the different incoming information the eyes and the vestibular system experience.
Perception
_______ is the mental process of organizing sensations into meaningful patterns.
Size constancy
____ ______ is when the perceived size of an object remains the same despite changes in the size of the image it casts on the retina.
Brightness constancy
______ ______ refers to the fact that the apparent brightness of the object stays the same under changing light conditions. However, this only happens when the object and surrounding objects are illuminated by the same amount of light.
Figure-ground organization
_____ _____ _______ is part of a stimulus that appears to stand out as an object (figure) against a less permanent background (ground).
reversible figure
A _____ _____ is a figure and ground that can be reversed.
nearness
In ______, all other things being equal, stimuli that are near each other tend to be constructed, or grouped, together.
similarity
In ______, stimuli that are similar in size, shape, color, or from tend to be grouped together.
continuity
Perceptions tend toward simplicity and ______.
Closure
______ refers to the tendency to complete a figure so that it has a consistent form.
Contiguity
______ is nearness in time and space. It is often responsible for the perception that one thing has caused another.
common region
In _____ ____, stimuli that are found within a common area tend to be seen as a group.
perceptual hypothesis
A ______ ______ is an initial peak or guess about how to organize sensations.
Ambiguous stimuli
________ ______ are patterns allowing for more than one interpretation.
Depth perception
_____ ________ is the ability to see 3-D space and to accurately judge distances.
visual cliff
A _____ ____ is an apparatus that looks like the edge of an elevated platform or cliff.
Empirical perception
______ ______ is a perception strongly influenced by prior experience.
Native perception
_____ _______ is a perceptual experience based on innate processes. It is what you are born with.
monocular depth cue
A _______ ____ ___ is depth cue that can be sensed with one eye.
binocular depth cue
A ________ _____ ___ is a depth cue that can be sensed with two eyes.
Stereoscopic vision
_______ ______ is three-dimensional sight (binocular).
Retinal disparity
_______ _____ is the discrepancy in the images that reach the right and left eye (binocular).
Pictoral cues for depth
______ ___ for ____ are features found in paintings, drawings, and photographs that supply information about space, depth, and distance.
Linear perspective
______ ________ is based on the apparent convergence of parallel lines in environment. (Example; train tracks going off in the distance).
relative size
To demonstrate _____ ____, an artist must make the more distance object smaller
light and shadow
The use of ______ and _______ give 2-D designs a 3-D appearance.
Overlap
________ (or interposition) is when one object partially blocks another to create depth.
Texture
______ changes can contribute to depth perception; coarse implies closeness, fine implies distance.
aerial perspective
In ______ ____________, distant objects tend to be hazy, washed out in color, and lacking detail.
relative motion
In ______ ________, nearby objects move a lot as your head moves; distant objects move slightly.
moon illusion
In the ____ _______, apparent changes in the size of the moon occur as it moves from the horizon to overhead. There are more depth cues at the horizon compared to overhead.
apparent distance hypothesis
The ______ ________ ________ states that the horizon seems more distant than the night sky.
Perceptual habits
________ ______ are ingrained patterns of organization and attention that affect our daily experience.
adaptation level
Your _________ _____ (the "medium point" of your personal form of reference) is modified by experience. If mot of the weights you lift in a day-to-day life average around 10 pounds, you will call a 10-pound weight "medium."
Context
______ refers to information surrounding a stimulus.
frame of reference
A _____ __ ______ is the internal standard for judging stimuli.
illusion
In an ______, length, position, motion, curvature, or direction is constantly misjudged.
hallucination
A ________ is when people perceive objects or events that have no external basis in reality.
stroboscopic movement
In ________ _______, illusory movement is perceived when objects are shown in rapidly changing positions.
Muller-Lyer illusion
In the ______ _____ _______, two equal length lines topped with inward or outward pointing V's appear to be of different length. It is based on experience with edges and corners of rooms and buildings.
size-distance invariance
The ____ _______ ____ hypothesis explains the moon illusion and its formula.
Selective attention
_______ ________ refers to the fact that we give some messages priority and put others on hold.
Divided attention
_______ ________ arises when you must divide your mental effort among tasks, each of which requires more or less attention (multi-tasking).
Habituation
________ is a decrease in perceptual response to a repeated stimuli.
orientation response (OR)
An _______ _______ prepares us to receive information from a stimulus: the pupils enlarge, bran wave patterns shift, breathing stops briefly, blood flow to the head increases, and we turn toward the stimulus. (Ex. a double take).
Bottom-up processing
_____ ___ _______ is the process of analyzing information starting at the bottom (small units) and going upward to from a complete perception (Inductive reasoning, pointillism, or impressionism).
Top-down processing
____ _____ ______ is the process pf using pre-existing knowledge to rapidly organize features into a meaningful whole (Deductive reasoning or in order to run, you must walk)
perceptual expectancy
A _______ ________ or set is a readiness to perceive in a particular manner, which is included by strong expectations.
Eyewitnesses
_______ aren't as accurate as we think because of these factors that affect their accuracy: stress, weapon focus, exposure time, confidence, cross-racial perceptions, post-event information, color perception, unconscious transference, alcohol intoxication, and attitudes and expectations.
Weapon focus
_______ _____ is the focus on a weapon that impairs the eyewitness' accuracy.
Dishabituation
_______ is the reversal of habituation.
Parapsychology
_______ is the study of ESP and other psi phenomena.
Clairvoyance
_______ is the purported ability to perceive events unaffected by distance or physical barriers.
Telepathy
______ is the purported ability to read minds.
Precognition
________ is the purported ability to predict the future.
Psychokinesis
_________ is the purported ability to influence objects by willpower.
Zener cards
_____ ____ have 25 cards, each having one of five symbols.
ESP
____ is extra sensory perception.
Maslow's theory of perceptual awareness
______ _____ __ _______ ________ states that people with an accurate view of themselves tend to be more open, healthy, and avoid criticism.