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18 terms

Chemistry 621A - Chapter 21 - Electrochemistry

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Electrochemical process
the conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy or electrical energy into chemical energy; all electrochemical processes involve redox reactions
Electrochemical Cell
Any device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy or electrical energy into chemical energy
Voltaic Cell
An electrochemical cell used to convert chemical energy into electrical energy; the energy is produced by a spontaneous redox reaction
Half-Cell
the part of a voltaic cell in which either oxidation or reduction occurs; it consists of a single electrode immersed in a solution of its ions
Salt Bridge
a tube containing a strong electrolyte used to separate the half-cells in a voltaic cell; it allows the passage of ions from one half-cell to the other but prevents the solutions from mixing completely
Electrode
A conductor in a circuit that carries electrons to or from a substance other than a metal
Anode
the electrode at which oxidation occurs
Cathode
the electrode at which reduction occurs
Dry Cell
a commercial voltaic cell in which the electrolyte is a moist paste. Example - Flashlight batteries
Battery
A group of voltaic cells that are connected to one another
Fuel cell
a voltaic cell that does not need to be recharged; the fuel is oxidized to produce a continuous supply of electrical energy
Electrical potential
the ability of a voltaic cell to produce an electrical current
Reduction Potential
a measure of the tendency of a given half-reaction to occur as a reduction (gain of electrons) in an electrochemical cell
Cell Potential
the difference between the reduction potentials of two half cells
Standard Cell Potential
The measured cell potential when an ion concentration in the half cells are 1.00M at 1ATM of pressure and 25C. (E cell)
Standard Hydrogen Electrode
An arbitrary reference electrode (half-cell) used with another electrode (half-cell) to measure the standard reduction potential of that cell; the standard reduction potential of a hydrogen electrode is assigned a value of 0.00V
Electrolysis
A process in which electrical energy is used to bring about a chemical change; the electrolysis of water produces hydrogen and oxygen
Electrolyte Cell
An electrochemical cell used to cause a chemical change through the application of electrical energy