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the conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy or electrical energy into chemical energy; all electrochemical processes involve redox reactions
Any device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy or electrical energy into chemical energy
An electrochemical cell used to convert chemical energy into electrical energy; the energy is produced by a spontaneous redox reaction
the part of a voltaic cell in which either oxidation or reduction occurs; it consists of a single electrode immersed in a solution of its ions
a tube containing a strong electrolyte used to separate the half-cells in a voltaic cell; it allows the passage of ions from one half-cell to the other but prevents the solutions from mixing completely
a commercial voltaic cell in which the electrolyte is a moist paste. Example - Flashlight batteries
a voltaic cell that does not need to be recharged; the fuel is oxidized to produce a continuous supply of electrical energy
a measure of the tendency of a given half-reaction to occur as a reduction (gain of electrons) in an electrochemical cell
Standard Cell Potential
The measured cell potential when an ion concentration in the half cells are 1.00M at 1ATM of pressure and 25C. (E cell)
Standard Hydrogen Electrode
An arbitrary reference electrode (half-cell) used with another electrode (half-cell) to measure the standard reduction potential of that cell; the standard reduction potential of a hydrogen electrode is assigned a value of 0.00V
A process in which electrical energy is used to bring about a chemical change; the electrolysis of water produces hydrogen and oxygen
An electrochemical cell used to cause a chemical change through the application of electrical energy
A process that involves complete or partial loss of electrons or a gain of oxygen; it results in an increase in the oxidation number of an ion
The substance in a redox reaction that accepts electrons; in the reaction, the oxidizing agent is reduced.
the substance in a redox reaction that donates electrons; in the reaction, the reducing agent is oxidized
A process that involves a complete or partial gain of electrons or the loss of oxygen; it results in a decrease in the oxidation numbers of an atom.
A positive or negative number assigned to an atom to indicate its degree of oxidation or reduction; the oxidation number of an uncombined element is zero
A method a balancing a redox equation by comparing the increases and decreases in oxidation numbers.
Conjugate Acid-Base Pair
consists of two substances related by the loss or gain of a single hydrogen ion
an aqueous solution in which the concentrations of H+ and OH- ions are equal; pH = 7
Ion-Product Constant for Water
the product of the concentrations of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in water; it is 1 X 10^-14 at 25 degrees C
Any water solution that has more hydrogen ions (H+) than hydroxide ions (OH-); pH is less than 7
any solution in which the hydroxide-ion concentration is greater than the hydrogen-ion concentration
a base that completely dissociates into metal ions and hydroxide ions in aqueous solution
Acid dissociation constant (Ka)
the ratio of the concentration of the dissociated form of an acid to the concentration of the undissociated form
Base dissociation constant (Kb)
the ratio of the concentration of the conjugate acid times the concentration of the hydroxide ion to the concentration of the base
Reactions in which an acid and a base react in an aqueous solution to produce a salt and water
The point during a titration when the number of H+ ions and OH- ions are equal. This is at the middle of the steepest part of the titration curve.
a solution whose concentration is accurately known used in carrying out a titration
process in which a solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of another solution
a process in which the cations or anions of a dissociated salt accept hydrogen ions from water or donate hydrogen ions to water
weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH
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