Under what Russian ruler was a large part of Russia freed from Mongol control in the 15th century?
Russia had become a more purely agricultural economy, dependent on peasant labor.
What was the state of the Russian economy immediately after the expulsion of the Mongols in the 15th century?
wished to confirm tsarist autocracy by attacking the authority of boyars.
Ivan IV, called Ivan the Terrible,
The Russians were motivated by a desire to push the former Mongol overlords farther back to prevent renewed invasion.
Why did the Russian expansion policy focus particularly on Central Asia?
Independent Central Asia, the source of nomadic cultures and invasion forces, was eliminated.
What was the impact of early Russian expansion on Central Asia?
Military alliances were signed with Spain and Portugal.
Which of the following was NOT a form of contact with the West during the reigns of the Ivans?
Updating practices in the Orthodox Church.
Which of the following was NOT an accomplishment of Tsar Michael?
Royal control over the bureaucracy and reorganized military.
Politically, what aspects of Western culture did Peter the Great emulate in Russia?
Peter's wars with the Ottoman Empire and Sweden indicated a westward shift in Russian expansion.
In what way did Peter the Great shift the foreign policy interests of Russia?
Reduction of taxes on the peasantry.
Which of the following was NOT one of Peter the Great's political reforms?
Mining and metallurgical industries.
Where was Peter the Great's program of economic development concentrated?
To avoid the need of importing military armaments.
What was the purpose of Peter the Great's policy of economic development?
Westernization was limited to the elite.
What was the limitation of Peter the Great's policies of cultural Westernization?
Catherine flirted vigorously with the ideas of the French Enlightenment, but failed to take steps to abolish serfdom.
What was Catherine the Great's attitude towrd teh program of Westernization?
The Russian radical and nobleman who, inspired by the philosophies of the West, urged the abolition of serfdom during the reign of Catherine the Great was
The politics of the Russian nobility were expressed through service in the tsarist state and the preeminent power they wielded over the peasant serfs.
Which of the following statements concerning the political voice of the Russian nobility is most accurate?
Russia saw a progressive intensification of serfdom while the West was relaxing this institution in favor of other labor systems.
What was one of the primary differences between the social organization of the West and Russia in the 17th and 18th centuries?
Lack of technological improvement.
What was one of the primary limitations on the expansion of the agricultural economy?
Because of the absence of a merchant class, the Russian government played a greater role than was common in Western states.
Compared to Western governments, how great a role did the Russian government play in economic development?