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Lost Tools of Writing Study Questions
Terms in this set (98)
What are the Three Canons?
Invention, Arrangement, and Elocution
What is the Invention Canon?
coming up with ideas (also called Discovery)
What is the Arrangement Canon?
ordering the ideas (also called Disposition)
What is the Elocution Canon?
expressing the ideas appropriately (also called Style)
How do you convert a statement into an issue?
Add "whether" to the beginning of the statement and "should have" in front of the verb
What is an Enumeration?
The statement of the total number of proofs in the Introductory paragraph of the outline`
What are the Five Common Topics?
Topic 1: Definition
Topic 2: Comparison
Topic 3: Circumstances
Topic 4: Relationships
Topic 5: Authority
What is parallelism?
A scheme in which parts of speech are put in the same position in a series of words, phrases, or clauses.
What is an Exordium?
An opening that attempts to draw the reader's interest and set the tone for the rest of the essay.
What are the five alternatives for an exordium?
4: Joke or Anecdote
What are the three verb errors?
Passive, vague, and cliche
What is an Amplification?
A concluding statement that highlights, or amplifies, the main proofs of the essay. It states "Who cares" and "Why", and is found at the very end of the conclusion paragraph.
What are the three subject errors?
Non-particular, hidden, and missing
What is a non-particular subject?
A subject that is too general
What is a hidden subject?
a subject that is not - but should be - the main actor of the sentence, and is hidden elsewhere in the sentence
What is a missing subject?
a subject that does not appear in the sentence at all, but should be the main actor
What is an antithesis?
an arrangement of contrasting ideas in adjacent clauses that follow the same grammatical pattern
What is Division?
an identification of the point of agreement between the two theses (usually the statement itself), and the point at which they disagree
What is Nominalization?
The act of turning a word that is not a noun into a noun. This is a error.
What is a Simile?
a comparison between two things that are different yet vaguely similar using "like" or "as"
What is a Refutation?
where the writer states the counter-thesis and shows why it is wrong using proofs and sub-proofs from the other side of the ANI chart
What is a Narratio?
the "statement of facts," or the summary of the actions or events that led to the issue and its circumstances
What is a Metaphor?
a comparison between two things that are different yet somewhat similar, but not using "like" or "as"
What is a Antecedent?
an event or action that precedes the issue or term
What is a Consequent?
an event or action that follows the issue or term
What is an Alliteration?
the repetition of initial consonant sounds in a phrase or verse
What is an Assonance?
the repetition of vowel sounds in a phrase or verse.
Three universal challenges to becoming a good writer?
1. coming up with something to say; 2. ordering your thoughts; and 3. expressing your thoughts appropriately
What is the solution to the 3 universal challenges?
What is the first canon?
What is the second canon?
What is the third canon?
The art of discovering material for the text (aka: invention)
the art of selecting, sorting, and outlining ideas and subject matter (aka arrangement)
affirmative, negative, and interesting
5 topics of invention
Comparison, circumstances, authority, relationship, and definition
a short piece of writing on a particular subject
the pattern to imitate when outlining an essay (intro, body, conclusion)
an opening of an essay
statement of the proposition of an essay you are defending
the reasons or arguments that defend the thesis
the number of reasons used to support the thesis
the statement of the main reasons in an essay - main proofs
summary of an essay
the art of expressing one's ideas appropriately (aka style)
which part of speech is used in the TOPIC definition?
hearing and seeing
what are the steps (in order) which take you from the question to the essay?
1. question; 2. issue; 3. ANI; 4. Sort; 5. Decide which side support/write 6. Thesis; 7. outline; 8. Essay
the reasons or arguments that defend the thesis
an arrangement of words appealing to the senses
an order of two or more words, phrases, or clauses aligned in such a way that the parts of speech in each line up with the same parts of speech in the other words, phrases, or clauses
the opening of an essay or speech, the first part of the introduction. (i.e. the hook). It connects the reader to the material in the essay
a scheme in which strongly contrasting (or opposite) concepts are expressed in a parallel form
A question beginning with 'whether'
8 parts of speech
noun, pronoun, verb, adverb, preposition, interjection, conjunction, adjective
reasons which support a main proof
an arrangement of words appealing to the mind or imagination
4 parts of your introduction
Exordium, thesis, enumeration, and exposition
what is included in the body of your essay?
Proof 1, 2, and 3. Each proof contains three subproofs
What does the conclusion include?
thesis & summary of proofs (exposition)
ending of the conclusion answering "to whom it matters" and "why"
The Four Sentence Structures
The four sentences structures are:
simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex.
The Four Sentence Purposes
The four sentence purposes are:
declarative, exclamatory, interrogative, and imperative.
The Pattern of a Sentence
The pattern of a sentence is one of seven specific arrangements of words in a sentence.
The Sentence Part: Subject
The subject is that part of a sentence about which something is being said.
The Sentence Part: Predicate
The predicate is that part of a sentence which says something about the subject.
The Eight Parts of Speech
The eight parts of speech are: nouns, pronouns, adverbs, conjunctions, interjections, prepositions, and adjectives.
A verb is a word that asserts an action, shows a state of being, links two words together, or helps another verb.
A noun names a person, place, thing, activity, or idea.
A pronoun replaces a noun in order to avoid repetition.
An interjection is a word or phrase used as a strong expression of feeling or emotion.
Interrogative Sentence (Int)
An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends with a question mark.
A conjunction is a word used to connect words, phrases, or clauses together.
Compound Sentence (Cd)
A compound sentence consists of at least two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction.
An appositive is a noun (or pronoun) directly beside another noun which explains or identifies it.
Mood is the manner in which a verb expresses its action or state of being.
Nouns of Direct Address (NDA)
A noun of direct address is used to call upon a person and is set off by one or more commas.
An adverb modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb and tells how, when, where, why, how often, how much, to what extent, or under what condition.
A preposition relates a noun or pronoun to another word.
A prepositional phrase consists of a preposition, its object, and any modifiers that may exist between them and functions as an adverb or an adjective in a sentence.
Linking Verb (Vl)
A linking verb makes an assertion by joining two words.
Intransitive Verb (Vi)
An intransitive verb does not transfer the action to an object.
Transitive Verb (Vt)
A transitive verb transfers the action from the subject to an object.
Helping Verb (Vh)
A helping verb helps another verb assert, action, being, or existence.
Predicate Nominative (PN)
A predicate nominative is a noun or pronoun that follows a linking verb and renames the subject.
Verb Principal Parts
The five principal parts are: infinitive, present, past, present participle, and past participle.
An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, qualifying, or limiting.
Predicate Adjective (PA)
A predicate adjective follows a linking verb and describes the subject.
What are terms?
the things compared
What are themes?
the ideas that the terms share in common
What are sub-ideas?
details (differences) under each theme
How many themes are there in a comparison essay?
How many sub-ideas are under each theme?
three for one term and three for the other (six total)
What is personification?
When you give human qualities to inanimate objects
What is apostrophe?
When you address an imaginary person or abstract quality
What is an anaphora?
A repetition of words, phrases, or clauses at the beginning of successive sentences
What is an Epistrophe?
A repetition of words, phrases, or clauses at the end of successive sentences
What is a hyberbole?
an exaggerated statement
What is a litote?
an expression of an idea by denying its opposite
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