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MGMT 2103 Exam #1
Terms in this set (20)
performance management process
Ensuring employee's activities and outputs are congruent with organizational goals
Define performance outcomes for company division and department
Develop employee goals, behaviors & actions to achieve outcomes
Provide support & ongoing performance discussions
Identify needed improvements
Provide consequences for performance results
key purposes of performance appraisal in organizations
organization gets information on how well and employee is doing on the job
standards we use to judge performance measures
strategic congruence, validity, reliability, acceptability, specificity
extent to which a performance management system elicits job performance
extent to which a performance measure assesses all the relevant and only relevant aspects of performance
consistency of a performance measure
whether the people who use a performance measure accept it
extent to which a performance measure tells employees what is expected of them and how they can meet these expectations
the broad methods of employee performance appraisal
comparative, attributes, behavior, results, quality
compares performance with others
Simple: ranks employees from highest to lowest performer
Alternation: crosses off best and worst employees
Forced distribution ranks employees in groups
Paired comparison: managers compare every employee with every other employee in work group
focuses on the extent to which individuals have certain attributes believed desirable for the company's success
Graphic rating scales
List of traits evaluated by 5-point rating scale
Define relevant performance dimensions
Develop statements representing good, average, and poor performance along each dimension
Critical incidents approach requires managers to keep record of specific examples of effective and ineffective performance
Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS)
Behavioral observation scales (BOS)
Organizational behavior modification is a formal system of behavioral feedback and reinforcement
Assessment centers are multiple raters who evaluate employees' performance on a number of exercises
Sets of skills, knowledge abilities and personal characteristics that enable employees to successfully perform their jobs
Identifies competencies necessary for each model and provides descriptions common for an entire occupation, organization, job family or specific job, useful for recruiting, selection, training and development
Management by objectives
Top management passes down company's strategic goals to managers to define goals
Productivity measurement and Evaluation Systems (ProMES)
Goal is to motivate employees to higher levels of productivity
4 perspectives of performance
Internal or operations
Learning and growth
PMS designed with strong quality orientation can:
Assess both person and system factors in the measurement system
Emphasize managers and employees working together to solve performance problems
Involve both internal and external customers in setting standards and measuring performance
Use multiple sources to evaluate person and system factors
Sustainability is a key element
Sources of performance management info
managers, peers, subordinates, self, customers
Managers: most frequently used source of performance information
Extensive knowledge of job requirements
Ability to rate employees
Motivated to make accurate ratings
Peers: excellent source when not under constant supervision, like law enforcement
Expert knowledge of job requirements
Most opportunity to observe during the day
Best position to recognize and praise performance
Disadvantage: bias & makes rater uncomfortable
Subordinates: especially valuable when managers are evaluated
Best opportunity to evaluate how well a manager treats employees
Self: not used often, but can be valuable
Opportunities to observe their own behavior
Customers: best source of employee's performance
They have knowledge of product
similar-to-me effect, strictness, central tendency, leniency, contrast effects, halo effect, horns effect
Rater error training
Frame-of-reference or rater accuracy training
providing effective performance feedback to employees
Give feedback frequently, not once a year.
Create right context for discussion.
Ask employees to rate performance before the session.
Encourage employee to participate.
Recognize effective performance through praise.
Focus on solving problems.
Focus feedback on behavior or results, not on the person.
Agree to specific goals and set progress review date.
diversity and discrimination issues that managers should be aware of throughout the performance appraisal process
Conduct a valid job analysis related to performance.
Base system on specific behaviors or results.
Train raters to use system correctly.
Review performance ratings and allow for employee appeal.
Provide guidance/support for poor performers.
Use multiple raters.
Document performance evaluations.