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104 terms

Biology 102 Lab 1

Lab 1 information
STUDY
PLAY
___ is the study of biological diversity and of the evolutionary relationships among organisms
Systematics
__ is the subdivision of systematics which deals with biological diversity
Taxonomy
__ is the subdivision of systematics which deals with evolutionary relationships.
Phylogeny
Taxonomy consisting of three associated activities:
-Identification of specimens
-classification
-nomenclature
Ordering organisms into groups based on perceived similarities and differences
classification
Naming groups according to accepted rules
nomenclature
A ___ is a unit of classification
taxon
biologists use a system of classification and nomenclature originated by ___, an 18th Century Swedish naturalist.
Linnaeus
Linnaeus created a hierarchy of taxonomic levels. The main levels in use today are:
Domain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
phylum plural:
phyla
genus plural:
genera
species plural
species
Modern biological classification attempts to group organisms according to their evolutionary relationships (_____) and thus represents a hypothesis regarding relatedness.
Phylogeny
Two species in the same taxon are ___ closely related to each other than they are to species in other taxa of the same level.
more
The classification system is ___
hierarchical
All members of the Order Carnivora have a common ancestor that they do not share with any other species outside the order. A taxon that meets this criterion is said to be ___
monophyletic
Most taxonomic names are based upon ___ roots
Latin or Greek
Knowing the ___, or origin, of a taxonomic name often helps people to remember the name
etymology
the scientific name of a species consists of two elements, the ___ and the ___
generic name and the specific name
Both genus and species names either are ___ or ___
underlined or in italics
Prokaryotes
domain
kingdom
domain
bacteria
cyanobacteria
archaea
Eukaryotes
domain
kingdom
Phylum __ and Phylum ____
Eukarya
animalia
calcarea silicea
living organisms are classified into ____
three domains
the cells of __ and ___ lack a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles and also are extremely small
Bacteria archaea
___ lack a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles and also are extremely small
prokaryotes
the larger cells of ___ have both a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
eukaryotes
the similarity in appearance between bacteria and archaea is only superficial-molecular data reveal that archaeans are more closely related to ___ than they are to ___.
eukaryotes
bacteria
All prokaryotes are ___ organisms, most of which have one of three basic shapes
single-cell
1. bacillus
2. coccus
3. Spirillum
rod-shaped
bacillus
Bacilli that occur in chains are called
streptobacilli
spherical
coccus
cocci occurring in chains are called
streptococci
cocci occurring in cluster are called
staphlococci
spiral
spirillum
spirilla only occur
singly
microbiologist usually begin their identification of bacteria by employing the ___
Gram stain
gram positive bacteria stain__, which chemically interacts with bacterial cell walls containing ___
purple
peptidoglycan
other bacteria have little peptidoglycan and do not appear purple after having been staind. Thus many bacteria are classified are
gram negative stain
several kingdoms occur in Domain Bacteria. We study only one- the Kingdom__
Cyanobacteria
The kingdom Cyanobacteria contains organisms known as ____
blue-green bacteria
These, cyanobacteria, gram-____ bacteria are the only prokaryotes that carry out ___, making organic molecules from carbon dioxide and using solar energy(as do algae and plants).
negative
oxygen generating photosynthesis
individual cells often are attached to each other by _____.
gelatinous sheaths
Asexual reproduction occurs by _____or ____
fragmentation or fission
___ where a single cell breaks into parts that regenerate into whole new cells
fragmentation
___-where the cell separates into two equal sized cells.
fission
Anabaena consists of filaments of ___ cells
rounded
specialized cells called ___ and ___ usually are present interspersed amoung the barrel shaped ___ which undergo ___
akinetes
heterocysts
vegetative cells
photosynthesis
___- large, oval, densely packed spore-like reproductive cells that resist drying
akinetes
___ fix atmospheric nitrogen (convert it to __ and ___)
heterocysts
ammonia and nitrate
Oscillatoria consists of filaments of __ cells
rectangular
Merismopedia which is ___
non-filamentous
Many archaeans are found in extreme environments, and include ___, ___, ____, and ___.
methanogens
thermophiles
acidophiles
halophiles
methanogens ___ producers
methane
___ inhabitants of extremely hot waters
thermophiles
capable of living at extremely low pH
acidophiles
tolerant of extremely high salinities
halophiles
archaeans also inhabit more "normal"environments, and may be the _____.
most abundant organisms on earth
Bacillus
Spirillum
Coccus
Anabaena
Anabaena
Oscillatoria
Oscillatoria
Merismopedia
Merismopedia
All remaining organisms you will study in this course belong to the Domain Eukarya. This domain includes the __-,___,___ and a wide variety of other ____ often collectively termed "___"
animals, plants, fungi
organisms
protists
You will begin the study of Eukaryotes with the Kingdom ____, which is the _____, both in terms of number of ___ and number or ___.
Animalia
largest Kingdom
phyla
species
Animals are multicellular eukaryotes that ___ their food.
Ingest
Until recently, sponges belonged to a single phylum, Phylum ____(__=pores, ___=bearing)
Porifera
pori
fera
based on analysis of molecular data, sponges now are divided into two phyla:___ and ____
Phylum Calcarea and Phylum Silicea
All sponges are ___, including both __ and ___ species
aquatic
marine
freshwater
Adult sponges are ___ and ___, but their larvae are __ and capable of ___.
benthic
sessile
motile
dispersing in the plankton
___ bottom-dwelling
benthic
attached to objects___
sessile
___ lack distinct tissues and organs - they have no nervous, muscular, circulatory systems, etc.
sponges
The basic body plan of a sponge is ___
asymmetrical
Sessile, adult sponge obtains nourishment by ___, it filters microscopic food particles from the water
suspension feeding
The sponge accomplishes suspension feeding by having a body that consists of two layers of cells surrounding a cavity, the ____
spongocoel
numerous pores, or ___, pierce the body wall. (sponges)
ostia
one or more large openings, or ___ are found on the upper surface of the sponge
Oscula
singular osculum
flagellated cells called ___ draw water through the ostia and out the osculum .
Choanocytes
collars of ___ on the choanocytes filter out edible food particles
cytoplasm
the choanocyte is a unique, or ___, character of the sponges
diagnostic
Spicules made of either ___ or ___ form the skeleton of many sponges.
calcium carbonate
silica
1. Osculum
2. Spicule
3. Porocyte
4. Pinacocyte
5. Choanocyte
6. Amoebocyte
7. Spongocoel
8. Ostium
9. Mesohyl
The glass sponge skeleton consists of fused ____.
silica spicules
Examine a bath sponge and note that this sponge is soft and pliable. This is because the skeleton of these sponges is formed from flexible fibers composed of the protein ___ instead of by spicules
spongin
The unit of classification between order and genus is ___
Family
The plural of genus is ____ and of species is ___
genera and species
The Domain most closely related to the Domain Eukarya is the Domain ____
Archaea
The prokaryotic basic shape that occurs either in chains or cluster is ____
coccus
Blue-green bacteria are in the Kingdom ___
cyanobacteria
The process whereby bacteria reproduce by splitting into two cells is called ___ as opposed to breaking into several parts, which is ____
fission
fragmentation
Archaeans that release methane gas
methanogens
archaeans that can live in very hot water
thermophiles
Archaeans that can live in very acidic water
acidophiles
Archaeans that can live in very salty water
halophiles
Animals, plants, fungi and "protists" are in the Domain ___
Eukarya
The term for bottom-dwelling is ___; attached to objects is ____
benthic
sessile
Water enters a sponge through small openings called___ , goes into a large spaced called the ___, and leaves through ___
ostia
spongocoel
osculum
spicules are made of either __ or ___
calcium carbonate or silica
in sponges, cells with flagella and collars that catch food particles are called ___
Choanocytes
All sponges belong to Kingdom __
Animalia