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14 terms

DNA structure and Replication

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Transformation
genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake, of genetic material from its surroundings and taken up through the cell membrane
Bacteriophage
a virus that infects bacteria
Semi-Conservative
method of replication that implies that each new strand of DNA is half original and half new
Polymerization
a chemical process that combines several monomers to form a polymer or polymeric compound
Histone
protein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin
Telomere
Endcap of a strand of DNA
Telomerase
an enzyme in eukaryotic cells that can add telomeres to the ends of chromosomes after they divide
DNA Polymerase
an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the DNA molecule
Template Strand
The DNA strand that provides the template for ordering the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcript.
Primer
An already existing RNA chain bound to template DNA to which DNA nucleotides are added during DNA synthesis.
Primase
An enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make the primer.
Replication Fork
A Y-shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where new strands are growing.
Okazaki Fragments
Short fragments of DNA that are a result of the synthesis of the lagging strand during DNA replication.
DNA Ligase
an enzyme that eventually joins the sugar-phosphate backbones of the Okazaki fragments