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genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake, of genetic material from its surroundings and taken up through the cell membrane


a virus that infects bacteria


method of replication that implies that each new strand of DNA is half original and half new


a chemical process that combines several monomers to form a polymer or polymeric compound


protein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin


Endcap of a strand of DNA


an enzyme in eukaryotic cells that can add telomeres to the ends of chromosomes after they divide

DNA Polymerase

an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the DNA molecule

Template Strand

The DNA strand that provides the template for ordering the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcript.


An already existing RNA chain bound to template DNA to which DNA nucleotides are added during DNA synthesis.


An enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make the primer.

Replication Fork

A Y-shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where new strands are growing.

Okazaki Fragments

Short fragments of DNA that are a result of the synthesis of the lagging strand during DNA replication.

DNA Ligase

an enzyme that eventually joins the sugar-phosphate backbones of the Okazaki fragments

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