Posed a serious threat to western settlers because, unlike the Eastern Indians from early colonial days, the Plains Indians possessed rifles and horses.
Migrated to the Midwest after being pushed off the central plains. Adapted to use horses and raise crops. They followed the buffalo and lived off buffalo meat and used parts of the buffalo for their clothing, homes, tools, and weapons. Eventually their land here was taken as well.
Nickname for African-American soldiers who fought in the wars against Native Americans living on the Great Plains during the 1870s
Fetterman's party was lured into a trap by about 1,500 Sioux under Chief High Backbone (fl. 1860s) and massacred on December 21, 1866.
In attempts to block the construction of this road to MT, Sioux massacred and mutilated 81 soldiers under Capt. Fetterman's command
Tried to supress indians into reservations. Found gold in black hills and tried to get indians off land to get gold.
Native American Tribe that will flee capture from U.S. Troops, who almost make it to Canada.
Helen Hunt Jackson
A writer. Author of the 1881 book A Century of Dishonor. The book exposed the U.S. governments many broken promises to the Native Americans. For example the government wanted Native Americans to assimilate, i.e. give up their beliefs and ways of life, that way to become part of the white culture.
Battle of Wounded Knee
US soldiers massacred 300 unarmed Native American in 1890. This ended the Indian Wars.
Dawes Severalty Act
Bill that promised Indians tracts of land to farm in order to assimilate them into white culture. The bill was resisted, uneffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes.
Carlisle Indian School
Failed attempt to forcibly integrate children of Native American's into US culture by way of a boarding school
Indian Reorganization Act
Government legislation that allowed the Indians a form of self-government and thus willingly shrank the authority of the U.S. government. It provided the Indians direct ownership of their land, credit, a constitution, and a charter in which Indians could manage their own affairs. Tried to restore Indian life
first discovered in 1858 by Henry Comstock, some of the most plentiful and valuable silver was found here, causing many Californians to migrate here, and settle Nevada.
The discovery of gold in 1858 which sent minors on a frantic rush to the Dakota territory, Montana, and Colorado.
Homestead Act of 1862
this allowed a settler to acquire 160 acres by living on it for five years, improving it and paying about $30
John Wesley Powell
explorer and geologist who warned that traditional agriculture could not succeed west of 100th meridian
In 1889, people who illegally claimed land by sneaking past government officials before the land races began in oklahoma
Frederick Jackson Turner
United States historian who stressed the role of the western frontier in American history (1861-1951)
a traveling salesman whose company beginning the early 1870's eliminated the "middleman," and whose services increased retail price of goods by reaching consumers directly through mail-order catalogs. First Catalouge.
National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry
Started by oliver Kelley to enhance lives of isolated farmers.
held the idea of public control of private business for the general welfare; faded after courts had reversed their laws
Illinois cant control railroad because its interstate commerce that is controlled by Federal Government.
James B. Weaver
He was the Populist candidate for president in the election of 1892; received only 8.2% of the vote. He was from the West.
A Farmers' organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy
Colored Farmers National Alliance
More than 1 million southern black farmers organized and shared complaints with poor white farmers. By 1890 membership numbered more than 250,000. The history of racial division in the South, made it hard for white and black farmers to work together in the same org.
U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies
Panic of 1893
Serious economic depression beginning in 1893. Began due to rail road companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures. Was the worst economic collapse in the history of the country until that point, and, some say, as bad as the Great Depression of the 1930s.
Eugene V Debs
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
in Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the "company town", Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing
25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism. Is assassinated by an anarchist