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102 terms

CHEM FINAL

chemical building blocks final chapters 1-4
STUDY
PLAY
Solid
A state of matter that has a definite shape and definite volume
Crystalline solids
a solid that is made up of crystals in which particles are arranged in a regular, repeating pattern-melts at a specific temp
Amorphous solid
A solid made up of particles that are not arranged in a regular pattern--does not melt at a distinct temp.
Liquid
a state of matter in the fluid state of matter having no fixed shape but a fixed volume
Fluid
a substance that flows
Surface tension
the result of an inward pull among the molecules of a liquid that brings the molecules on the surface closer together
Viscosity
a liquid's resistance to flow
Gas
a state matter that does not have a definite shape or volume
Melting
The change in state from a solid to a liquid
Melting point
The temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid; the same as the freezing point, or temperature at which a liquid changes to a solid-- 0ºc
Freezing
the change of state from a liquid to a solid
Vaporization
The change of state from a liquid to a gas
Evaporation
the process that occurs when vaporization takes place only on the surface of a liquid
Boiling
The process that occurs when vaporization takes place inside a liquid as well as on the surface
Boiling point
The temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas; the same as the condensation point, or temperature at which a gas changes to a liquid 100 °C
Condensation
The change of state from a gas to a liquid(opposite of vaporization)
Sublimation
The change in state from a solid directly to a gas without passing through the liquid state
Pressure
the force pushing on a surface divided by the area of that surface
Boyle's Law
The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas at constant temperture
Rule of Boyle's Law
when volume +, pressure -
Charle's Law
a principle that describes the relationship between the temperature and volume of a gas at constant pressure
Rule of Charle's Law
When temp + , vol. +
Pressure Formula...
P=F/A
Boyle's Law on a Graph
Vary Inversely(curved)
ManipulatedVariable(x)--Volume(mL,L,cm3..)
Responding Variable(y)--Pressure(kPa)
Temp is kept constant
Charle's Law on a Graph
Directly Proportional(straight)
Manipulated Variable(x)--Temp(K)
Responding Variable(y)--Volume(mL,L,cm3....)
Pressure is kept constant
Properties of a Solid
fixed,closely packed arrangement of the particles
Particles of a Gas
spread apart filling the space available--in a constant motion
Particles of a Liquid
Free to move around
Three States of Mater
solid
liquid
gas
Fourth State of Matter
Plasma
Chemical Properties of Matter
A characteristic of a pure substance that describes its ability to change into different substances
Physical Properties of Matter
A characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed w/out changing it to another substance
Molecule
a particle made of two or more atoms bonded together--- the smallest part of a compound
Atom
the basic particle from which all elements are made--- smallest part of an element
Elements
A pure substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical or physical means
Compounds
A pure substance made up of two or more elements chemically combined
Mixtures
two or more substances that are not chemically combined
Homogenous Mixture
A mixture in which materials are blended evenly so that the mixture is the same throughout; also called a solution
Heterogeneous Mixture
a mixture in which pure substances are unevenly distributed throughout the mixture
Mass
A measure of the amount of matter in an object
Weight
A measure of the force of gravity on an object
Volume of a Liquid
LWH
Density
The measurement of how much mass of a substance is contained in a given volume
Density Formula
mass/volume
Physical Change
a change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance
Chemical Change
a change in which one or more substances combine or break apart to form new substances
Example of Physical Change
tearing, drawing, pressing, cutting, folding, mixtures, dissolving
Example of Chemical Change
burning, fizzing bubbling, change in odor, change in color, new substance is made, change in temperature.
Endothermic Change
A change in which energy is absorbed
Exothermic Change
A change in which energy is released
Chemical Energy Changing Into Other Forms of NRG
during a chemical change
Particles of an Atom
Proton(+)
Neutron
Electron(e-)
Particles in a Nuclei
Protons and Neutron
Charge of a Proton
+
Charge of a Electron
-
Charge of a Neutron
No charge
Why do Scientists Make Models of Atoms
because the atoms are so small and fast
Mendeleev Periodic Table
arranged in order of increasing atomic mass
Moseley Periodic Table
arranged by the atomic number
Mendeleev Noticed that...
a pattern of properties appeared when he arranged the elements into order of increasing atomic mass
Atomic Number
the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus
Chemical Symbol
A one or two letter representation of an element
Atomic Mass Number
The total number of protons and neutrons in an atom
Properties of Metal
Shininess,Malleability,Ductility, and Conductivity
Alkali Metals
The elements of group 1 of the periodic table.,
Alkali Metals Reactivity
very reactive
How are Elements Synthesized
By colliding particles at very high speeds also by nuclear fusion and nuclear reactions
Halogen Family
Group 17 of the periodic table contains flourine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine
Hydrogen
makes up largest amount of the Sun
Supernova
Creates heavier elements by nuclear fusion
Polymer
consists of repeated, linked units. The units may be identical or structurally related to each other.
How Do Polymers Form
when chemical bonds link large numbers of monomers in a repeating pattern
Henri Becquerel
discovered radioactivity
Pierre and Marie Curie
found two new radioactive elements (uranium and pitchblende) that were added to he periodic table
Alpha Particles are Blocked by
Paper
Beta Particles are Blocked by
thin piece of metal
Gamma Rays are Blocked by
Concrete or Lead
Half Life
the time required for one half of the atoms of a radioisotope to emit radiation an decay products
What Happens in Radiation Thearpy
radioactive elements are used to destroy unhealthy cells
Why are Radioactive Materials Dangerous
Because they give off radiation
How are Radioactive Materials Managed
placed in a specially designed containers that are buried underground in a dry tunnel
Rule for Alpha Decay
Move 2 to the left
Subtract 4 on top
Subtract 2 on bottom
Rule for Beta Decay
Move 1 to the right
Dont Change Top!
Add 1 to the bottom
Rule for Gamma Decay
DONT CHANGE ANYTHING
Metals
Largest group on the periodic table
Malleability
the ability to be hammered into a sheet
Ductility
the ability of a substance to be pulled into a wire
Directly Proportional
a term used to describe the relationship between two variables whose graph is a straight line passing through the point (0,0)
Vary Inversely
a term used to describe the relationship between two variables whose graph forms a curve that slopes downward
Density is Measured in
g/cm3
Example of Endothermic Reaction
photosynthesis, decomposition of water, melting ice cubes,
Example of Exothermic Reaction
making ice cubes,nuclear fission,a candle flame
Example of Heterogeneous Mixtures
Italian Salad Dressing
Orange Juice with Pulp
Soil
Example of Homogeneous Mixtures
Sugar solution when sugar is completely dissolved
brewed tea or coffee
Air
Volume is Measured in
mL, L, cm3
Six Types of Energy
Kinetic
Potential
Chemical
Electromagnetic
Electrical
Thermal
Examples of Kinetic Energy
bowling ball
roller coaster going down
Examples of Potential Energy
roller coaster at the top
diver on top of board
Examples of Chemical Energy
Wood burning
Evaporation
Examples of Electromagnetic Energy
microwave
x-ray
Examples of Electrical Energy
computer
cell phone
Examples of Thermal Energy
Coals burning
Sun