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a solid that is made up of crystals in which particles are arranged in a regular, repeating pattern-melts at a specific temp
A solid made up of particles that are not arranged in a regular pattern--does not melt at a distinct temp.
the result of an inward pull among the molecules of a liquid that brings the molecules on the surface closer together
The temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid; the same as the freezing point, or temperature at which a liquid changes to a solid-- 0ºc
The process that occurs when vaporization takes place inside a liquid as well as on the surface
The temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas; the same as the condensation point, or temperature at which a gas changes to a liquid 100 °C
The change in state from a solid directly to a gas without passing through the liquid state
a principle that describes the relationship between the temperature and volume of a gas at constant pressure
Boyle's Law on a Graph
Temp is kept constant
Charle's Law on a Graph
Pressure is kept constant
Chemical Properties of Matter
A characteristic of a pure substance that describes its ability to change into different substances
Physical Properties of Matter
A characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed w/out changing it to another substance
A pure substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical or physical means
A mixture in which materials are blended evenly so that the mixture is the same throughout; also called a solution
a mixture in which pure substances are unevenly distributed throughout the mixture
a change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance
a change in which one or more substances combine or break apart to form new substances
Example of Chemical Change
burning, fizzing bubbling, change in odor, change in color, new substance is made, change in temperature.
Mendeleev Noticed that...
a pattern of properties appeared when he arranged the elements into order of increasing atomic mass
How are Elements Synthesized
By colliding particles at very high speeds also by nuclear fusion and nuclear reactions
Group 17 of the periodic table contains flourine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine
consists of repeated, linked units. The units may be identical or structurally related to each other.
Pierre and Marie Curie
found two new radioactive elements (uranium and pitchblende) that were added to he periodic table
the time required for one half of the atoms of a radioisotope to emit radiation an decay products
How are Radioactive Materials Managed
placed in a specially designed containers that are buried underground in a dry tunnel
a term used to describe the relationship between two variables whose graph is a straight line passing through the point (0,0)
a term used to describe the relationship between two variables whose graph forms a curve that slopes downward
Example of Homogeneous Mixtures
Sugar solution when sugar is completely dissolved
brewed tea or coffee
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