Psych quiz 1
Terms in this set (239)
The scientific study of the causes of behaviour; also, the application of the findings of psychological research to the solution of problems.
an event that causes another event to occur
The branch of psychology that studies the physiological basis of behaviour.
The branch of psychology that studies the
behaviours of a variety of organisms in an attempt to understand the adaptive and functional significance of the behaviours and their relation to evolution.
The branch of psychology that studies the effect of the environment on behaviour primarily, the effects of the consequences of behaviours
on the behaviours themselves.
The branch of psychology that studies the role of genetics in behaviour.
The branch of psychology that studies complex behaviours and mental processes such as perception, attention, learning and memory, verbal behaviour, concept formation, and problem solving.
The branch of psychology that attempts to understand cognitive psychological functions by studying the brain mechanisms that are responsible for them.
The branch of psychology that studies the
changes in behavioural, perceptual, and cognitive capacities of organisms as a function of age and experience.
The branch of psychology devoted to the study of the effects people have on each other's behaviour.
The branch of psychology that attempts to categorize and understand the causes of individual differences in patterns of behaviour.
The branch of psychology that explains behaviour in terms of adaptive advantages that specific behaviours provided during the evolution of a species. Evolutionary psychologists use natural selection as a guiding principle.
The branch of psychology that studies the
effects of culture on behaviour.
The branch of psychology devoted to the investigation and treatment of abnormal behaviour and psychological disorders.
The belief that all animals and all moving objects possess spirits providing their motive force.
An automatic response to a stimulus, such as the blink reflex to the sudden unexpected approach of an object toward the eyes.
The philosophical belief that reality consists of mind and matter.
A relatively simple system that works on known principles and is able to do at least some of the things that a more complex system can do.
The philosophical view that all knowledge is obtained through the senses.
A philosophical belief that reality can be known only through an understanding of the physical world, of which the mind is a part.
doctrine of specific nerve energies
Johannes Müller s observation that different nerve fibres convey specific information from one part of the body to the brain or from the brain to one part of the body
The removal or destruction of a portion of the brain of an experimental animal for the purpose of studying the functions of that region.
The branch of psychology that measures the quantitative relation between physical stimuli and perceptual experience.
The doctrine that behaviour is the result of prior events
law of effect
Thorndike s observation that stimuli that occur as a consequence of a response can increase or decrease the likelihood of making that response again.
The system of experimental psychology that began with Wundt; it emphasized introspective analysis of sensation and perception.
Literally, looking within, in an attempt to describe one's own memories, perceptions, cognitive processes, or motivations
The strategy of understanding a species structural or behavioural features by attempting to establish their usefulness with respect to survival and reproductive success.
A movement in psychology that asserts that the only proper subject matter for scientific study in psychology is observable behaviour
An approach to the study of human behaviour
that emphasizes human experience, choice and creativity, self-realization, and positive growth.
A movement in psychology that emphasized that
cognitive processes could be understood by studying their organization, not their elements.
An approach used by cognitive psychologists to
explain the workings of the brain; information received through the senses is processed by systems of neurons in the brain.
A set of rules that governs the collection and analysis of data gained through observational studies or experiments
The observation of the behaviour of people or
other animals in their natural environments.
The observation of the behaviour of people who are undergoing diagnosis or treatment.
The examination of relations between two or more measurements of behaviour or other characteristics of people or other animals.
A study in which the researcher changes the value of an independent variable and observes whether this manipulation affects the value of a dependent variable. Only experiments can confirm the existence of cause-and-effect relations among variables.
A statement, usually designed to be tested by an experiment, that tentatively expresses a cause-and-effect relationship between two or more events.
A set of statements designed to explain a set of phenomena; more encompassing than a hypothesis.
A detailed description of an individual's behaviour during the course of clinical treatment or diagnosis
A study of people s responses to standardized questions.
Anything capable of assuming any of several values
Setting the values of an independent variable in an experiment to see whether the value of another variable is affected.
A group of participants in an experiment, the members of which are exposed to a particular value of the independent variable, which has been manipulated by the researcher
A comparison group used in an experiment, the members of which are exposed to the naturally occurring or zero value of the independent
The variable that is manipulated in an experiment as a means of determining cause-and-effect relations.
The variable that is measured in an experiment
The false belief that one has explained the causes of a phenomenon by identifying and naming it; for example, believing that one has explained lazy behaviour by attributing it to laziness
The definition of a variable in terms of the operations the researcher performs to measure or manipulate it.
The degree to which the operational definition of a variable accurately reflects the variable it is designed to measure or manipulate
confounding of variables
Inadvertent simultaneous manipulation of more
than one variable. The results of an experiment involving confounded variables permit no valid conclusions about cause and effect.
A systematic variation of conditions in an experiment, such as the order of presentation of stimuli, so that different participants encounter them in different orders; prevents confounding of independent variables with time-dependent processes such as habituation or fatigue.
The repeatability of a measurement; the likelihood that if the measurement was made again it would yield the same value.
The degree to which two or more independent observers agree in their ratings of another organisms behaviour.
Procedure in which each participant has an equally likely chance of being assigned to any of the conditions or groups of an experiment.
An inert substance that cannot be distinguished in appearance from a real medication; used as the control substance in a single-blind or
An experiment in which the researcher but not the participant knows the value of the independent variable
An experiment in which neither the participant nor the researcher knows the value of the independent variable.
The examination of relations between two or more measurements of behaviour or other characteristics of people or other animals
A systematic selection of participants in groups in an experiment or (more often) a correlational study to ensure that the mean values of important participant variables of the groups are similar.
Repetition of an experiment or observational study to see whether previous results will be obtained
A selection of elements from a larger population for example, a group of participants selected to participate in an experiment.
The conclusion that the results obtained from a sample apply also to the population from which the sample was taken
Agreement to participate in an experiment after being informed about the nature of the research and any possible risks and benefits.
Privacy of participants and non-disclosure of their participation in a research project.
Full disclosure to research participants of the nature and purpose of a research project after its completion
Mathematical procedures for organizing collections of data, such as determining the mean, the median, the range, the variance, and the correlation coefficient.
measure of central tendency
A statistical measure used to characterize the value of items in a sample of numbers.
A measure of central tendency; the sum of a group of values divided by their number; the arithmetical average
A measure of central tendency; the midpoint of a group of values arranged numerically
measure of variability
A statistical measure used to characterize the dispersion in values of items in a sample of numbers
The difference between the highest score and the lowest score of a sample.
A statistic that expresses the variability of a measurement; square root of the average of the squared deviations from the mean
A graph of items that have two values; one value is plotted against the horizontal axis and the other against the vertical axis
A measurement of the degree to which two variables are related.
The likelihood that an observed relation or difference between two variables really exists rather than is due to chance factors
Mathematical procedures for determining whether relations or differences between samples are statistically significant
Changes that take place in the genetic and physical characteristics of a population or group of organisms over time.
The effectiveness of behaviour in aiding organisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions
Evolutionary conditions that have slowly shaped the behaviour of a species over generations
Immediate environmental events and conditions that affect behaviour.
The sum of socially transmitted knowledge, customs, and behaviour patterns common to a particular group of people
A procedure in which particular animals are
deliberately mated to produce offspring that possess especially desirable characteristics.
The consequence of the fact that, because there are physical and behavioural differences among organisms, they reproduce differentially. Within a given population, some animals the survivors will produce more offspring than will other animals
The number of viable offspring an individual produces relative to the number of viable offspring produced by other members of the same species.
The differences found across individuals of any given species in terms of their genetic, biological (size, strength, physiology), and psychological (intelligence, sociability, behaviour) characteristics
An organisms genetic makeup.
The outward expression of an organisms genotype; an organisms physical characteristics and behaviour
A striving or vying with others who share the same ecological niche for food, mates, and territory
The study of the genetic makeup of organisms and how it influences their physical and behavioural characteristics.
The sum of the traits and tendencies inherited from a person's parents and other biological ancestors.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
The DNA structure resembles that of a twisted ladder. Strands of sugar and phosphates are connected by rungs made from nucleotide molecules of adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine
Small units of DNA that direct the synthesis of proteins and enzymes
The total set of genetic material of an organism.
Proteins that regulate the structure of bodily cells and the processes occurring within those cells.
Threadlike structures in the nuclei of living cells; contain genes
The chromosomes that contain the instructional code for the development of male or female sex characteristics.
The chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes
The form of cell division by which new sperm and ova are formed. The chromosomes within the cell are randomly rearranged so that new sperm and ova contain 23 individual chromosomes, or half of those found in other
Alternative forms of the same gene.
The trait that is exhibited when an individual possesses heterozygous alleles.
A trait that occurs only when it is expressed by homozygous alleles.
Accidental alterations in the DNA code within a single gene. Mutations can be either spontaneous, occurring naturally, or the result of environmental factors such as exposure to high-energy radiation.
The rearrangement of genes within chromosomes or a change in the total number of chromosomes.
A genetic disorder caused by a chromosomal aberration resulting in an extra twenty-first chromosome. People having Down syndrome
show impairments in physical, psychomotor, and cognitive development.
Huntington s disease
A genetic disorder caused by a dominant lethal gene in which a person experiences slow but progressive mental and physical deterioration.
A genetic disorder caused by a particular pair of
homozygous recessive genes and characterized by the inability to break down
phenylalanine, an amino acid found in many high-protein foods. The resulting high blood levels of phenylalanine cause mental retardation
The amount of variability in a given trait in a given population at a given time due to genetic factors
The study of genetic influences on behaviour
A trait showing a classical dominant, recessive, or sexlinked pattern of inheritance. Mendelian traits are usually dichotomous and are controlled by a single locus.
A trait that does not show the inheritance pattern described by Mendel. Non-mendelian traits are usually polygenic and show continuous variation in the phenotype.
The new scientific discipline of manipulating genetic sequences to alter an organisms genome
An artificially constructed genetic sequence inserted into a gene to inactivate it.
A known DNA sequence that occurs at a particular place in the chromosome.
Research that studies the degree of similarity between twins in traits expressed. Twins are said to be concordant for a trait if either both or neither twin expresses it and discordant if only one twin expresses it.
Changes in cell inheritance that are not due to
alterations in the sequence of DNA nucleotides
The ability to move about the environment upright on two feet.
An increase in brain size
The adaptive changes of cultures in response to environmental changes over time
The study of the genetic bases of social behaviour.
Different systems of mating and rearing offspring. These include monogamy, polygyny, polyandry, and polygynandry
The mating of one female and one male.
The mating of one male with more than one female
The mating of one female with more than one male.
The mating of several females with several males.
The resources, including time, physical effort, and risks to life that a parent spends in procreation and in the feeding, nurturing,
and protecting of offspring.
Selection for traits specific to sex, such as body size or particular patterns of behaviour
The unselfish concern of one individual for the welfare of another.
The reproductive success of those who share common genes
A type of selection that favours altruistic acts aimed at individuals who share some of the altruist s genes, such as parents, siblings, grandparents, grandchildren, and, under certain conditions, distant relatives.
Altruism in which people behave altruistically toward one another because they are confident that such acts will be reciprocated toward either them or their kin
central nervous system
The brain and the spinal cord.
A long, thin collection of nerve cells attached to the base of the brain and running the length of the spinal column.
A bundle of fibres that transmits information between the central nervous system and the body s sense organs, muscles, and glands.
peripheral nervous system
The cranial and spinal nerves; that part of the
nervous system peripheral to the brain and spinal cord.
A bundle of nerve fibres attached to the base of the brain; conveys sensory information from the face and head and carries messages to muscles and glands.
A bundle of nerve fibres attached to the spinal cord; conveys sensory information from the body and carries messages to muscles and
The stem of the brain, including the medulla, pons, and midbrain.
The largest part of the brain; covered by the cerebral cortex and containing parts of the brain that evolved most recently
A pair of hemispheres resembling the cerebral hemispheres but much smaller and lying beneath and in back of them; controls posture
and movements, especially rapid ones.
One of the bones that encase the spinal cord and constitute the vertebral column.
The three-layered set of membranes that enclose the brain and spinal cord.
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
The liquid in which the brain and spinal cord
float; provides a shock-absorbing cushion.
blood brain barrier
A barrier between the blood and the brain produced by the cells in the walls of the brain s capillaries; prevents some substances from passing from the blood into the brain.
The outer layer of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain, approximately 3 mm thick.
The portions of the central nervous system that are abundant in cell bodies of neurons rather than axons. The colour appears grey relative to white matter.
The portions of the central nervous system that are abundant in axons rather than cell bodies of neurons. The colour derives from the presence
of the axons myelin sheaths.
A nerve cell; consists of a cell body with dendrites and an axon whose branches end in terminal buttons that synapse with muscle fibres, gland cells, or other neurons.
A cell of the central nervous system that provides support for neurons and supplies them with some essential chemicals.
A tree-like part of a neuron on which other neurons form synapses.
A small bud-like protuberance on the surface of a neuron's dendrite.
A cell body; the largest part of a neuron.
A long, thin part of a neuron attached to the soma; divides into a few or many branches, ending in terminal buttons
The rounded swelling at the end of the axon of a neuron; releases transmitter substance.
A chemical released by the terminal buttons that causes the postsynaptic neuron to be excited or inhibited.
The insulating material that encases most large axons.
A brief electrochemical event that is carried by an axon from the soma of the neuron to its terminal buttons; causes the release of a
A positively or negatively charged particle; produced when many substances dissolve in water.
A special protein molecule located in the membrane of a cell; controls the entry or exit of particular ions.
A special protein molecule located in the membrane of a cell; actively transports ions into or out of the cell.
The principle that once an action potential is triggered in an axon, it is propagated, without getting smaller, to the end of the axon.
A neuron that detects changes in the external or internal environment and sends information about these changes to the central nervous system.
A neuron whose terminal buttons form synapses with muscle fibres. When an action potential travels down its axon, the associated muscle fibres will twitch.
The junction between the terminal button of one neuron and the membrane of a muscle fibre, a gland, or another neuron
A neuron whose terminal buttons form synapses with and excite or inhibit another neuron.
A neuron with which the terminal buttons of another neuron form synapses and that is excited or inhibited by that neuron.
A fluid-filled space between the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes; the terminal button releases transmitter substance into this
A special protein molecule located in the
membrane of the postsynaptic neuron that responds to molecules of the neurotransmitter.
The process by which a terminal button retrieves the molecules of transmitter substance that it has just released; terminates the effect of the transmitter substance on the receptors of the postsynaptic neuron.
The most important excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and spinal cord.
The most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain
A drug that causes sedation; one of several derivatives of barbituric acid.
A tranquilizer, which reduces anxiety
A class of drug having anxiolytic ( tranquilizing ) effects, such as diazepam (Valium).
A neurotransmitter found in the brain, spinal cord, and parts of the peripheral nervous system; responsible for muscular contraction.
A drug that prevents the release of acetylcholine by terminal buttons.
black widow spider venom
A drug that stimulates the release of
acetylcholine by terminal buttons.
A drug that enhances the effects of acetylcholine by blocking the enzyme that destroys it.
A drug that binds with and stimulates acetylcholine receptors, mimicking the effects of this neurotransmitter.
A drug that binds with and blocks acetylcholine receptors, preventing the neurotransmitter from exerting its effects.
A category of neurotransmitters that includes dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin.
A monoamine neurotransmitter involved in control of brain mechanisms of movement and reinforcement.
Parkinson s disease
A neurological disorder characterized by tremors, rigidity of the limbs, poor balance, and difficulty in initiating movements; caused by degeneration of a system of dopamine-secreting neurons.
A monoamine neurotransmitter involved in alertness and vigilance and control of REM sleep.
A monoamine neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of mood; in the control of eating, sleep, and arousal; and in the regulation of pain.
Lysergic acid diethylamide; a hallucinogenic drug that blocks a category of serotonin receptors
A substance secreted in the brain that modulates the activity of neurons that contain the appropriate receptors.
A category of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that consist of two or more amino acids, linked by peptide bonds
A neuromodulator whose action is mimicked by a natural or synthetic opiate, such as opium, morphine, or heroin.
A drug that binds with and blocks opioid receptors, preventing opiate drugs or endogenous opioids from exerting their effects.
A neuromodulator whose action is mimicked by
THC and other drugs present in marijuana.
The most important endogenous cannabinoid
Damage to a particular region of the brain; a synonym for experimental ablation.
A device used to insert an electrode into a particular part of the brain for the purpose of recording electrical activity, stimulating the brain electrically, or producing localized damage.
A mutated gene (also called a knockout gene ) produced in the laboratory and inserted into the chromosomes of mice; abolishes the normal effects of the gene.
The production of changes in the structure and functions of the nervous system, induced by environmental events.
A device that uses a special X-ray machine and a computer to produce images of the brain that appear as slices taken parallel to the top of the skull.
A thin electrode made of wire or glass that can measure the electrical activity of a single neuron.
A method of brain study that measures the
changes in magnetic fields that accompany action potentials in the cerebral cortex
A procedure that collects solutions surrounding the brain's neurons for subsequent chemical analysis.
transcranial magnetic stimulation
Direct stimulation of the cerebral cortex
induced by magnetic fields generated outside the skull.
The generation of new neurons.
The area that surrounds the neural tube; consists of a layer of founder cells.
Undifferentiated cells that can divide and produce any one of a variety of differentiated cells.
The death of founder cells, caused by a chemical signal at the end of asymmetrical division.
Toward the front.
Toward the back.
The front portion of the cerebral cortex, including Broca's speech area and the motor cortex; damage impairs movement, planning, and flexibility in behavioural strategies.
The region of the cerebral cortex behind the frontal lobe and above the temporal lobe; contains the somatosensory cortex; is involved in spatial perception and memory.
The portion of the cerebral cortex below the frontal and parietal lobes; contains the auditory cortex.
The rearmost portion of the cerebral cortex; contains the primary visual cortex.
primary visual cortex
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives information directly from the visual system; located in the occipital lobes.
primary auditory cortex
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives information directly from the auditory system; located in the temporal lobes
primary somatosensory cortex
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives
information directly from the somatosensory system (touch, pressure, vibration, pain, and temperature); located in the front part of the parietal lobes.
Residing in the side of the body opposite the reference point
primary motor cortex
The region of the cerebral cortex that directly controls the movements of the body; located posterior to the frontal lobes.
sensory association cortex
Those regions of the cerebral cortex that
receive information from the primary sensory areas.
The anterior part of the frontal lobe; contains the motor association cortex.
motor association cortex
Those regions of the cerebral cortex that control the primary motor cortex; involved in planning and executing behaviours
A large bundle of axons ( white matter ) that connects the cortex of the two cerebral hemispheres.
The inability of a person who is not blind to recognize the identity or use of an object by means of vision; usually caused by damage to
The process by which important physiological characteristics (such as body temperature and blood pressure) are regulated so that they
remain at their optimum level.
A behaviour seen in all or most members of a
species, such as nest building, special food-getting behaviours, or reproductive behaviours.
The part of the brain stem closest to the spinal cord; controls vital functions such as heart rate and blood pressure.
The part of the brain stem just anterior to the medulla; involved in control of sleep.
The part of the brain stem just anterior to the pons; involved in control of fighting and sexual behaviour and in decreased sensitivity to pain
during these behaviours.
A region of the brain near the centre of the cerebral hemispheres. All sensory information except smell is sent to the thalamus and then
relayed to the cerebral cortex.
A region of the brain located just above the pituitary gland; controls the autonomic nervous system and many behaviours related to
regulation and survival, such as eating, drinking, fighting, shivering, and sweating.
An endocrine gland attached to the hypothalamus at the base of the brain
A gland that secretes a hormone.
A chemical substance secreted by an endocrine gland that has physiological effects on target cells in other organs.
A cell whose physiological processes are affected by a particular hormone; contains special receptor molecules that respond to the
presence of the hormone.
autonomic nervous system
The portion of the peripheral nervous system
that controls the functions of the glands and internal organs
The portion of the autonomic nervous system that activates functions that accompany arousal and expenditure of energy.
The portion of the autonomic nervous system
that activates functions that occur during a relaxed state.
A set of interconnected structures of the brain important in emotional and species-typical behaviour; includes the amygdala, hippocampus, and limbic cortex.
The cerebral cortex located around the edge of the cerebral hemispheres where they join with the brain stem; part of the limbic system.
A part of the limbic system of the brain located deep in the temporal lobe; damage causes changes in emotional and aggressive
A part of the limbic system of the brain, located in the temporal lobe; plays important roles in learning