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Terms in this set (32)
A systematic set of interrelated statements intended to explain some aspect of social life or enrich our sense of how people conduct and find meaning in their daily lives. Theory helps us make sense of and see patterns in diverse observations; it helps direct our inquiry into those areas that seem more likely to show useful patterns and explanations. It also helps us distinguish between chance occurrences and observations that have value in anticipating future occurrences.
A research process based on inductive logical, in which the researcher begins with observations, seeks patterns in those observations, and generates tentative conclusions from those patterns.
A research process based on deductive logic, in which the researcher begins with a theory, then derives hypotheses, and ultimately collects observations to test the hypotheses.
Scientific inquiry in practice typically involves:
An alternation between deduction and induction. During the deductive phase, we reason toward observations; during the inductive phase, we reason from observations. Both are routes to the construction of theories.
Being aware of and appropriately responding to the ways in which multicultural factors should influence what we investigate, how we investigate and how we interpret our findings.
A set of philosophical assumptions about the nature of reality—a fundamental model of scheme that organizes our view of some things.
A paradigm that emphasizes the pursuit of objectivity in our quest to observe and understand reality. CP researchers often use quantitative methods and formulate all or most of their research procedures for a specific study in advance, and then attempt to adhere precisely to those procedures with maximum objectivity as they collect data.
A paradigm that emphasizes multiple subjective realities and the difficulty of being objective. SC researchers more likely to use qualitative methods and begin with a more flexible plan, one that values subjective processes and the need for the research processes to evolve as more observations are gathered, rather than being determined completely in advance.
A research paradigm that focuses on gaining an empathic understanding of how people feel inside, seeking to interpret individuals' everyday experiences, their deeper meanings and feelings, and the idiosyncratic reasons for their behaviors. Interpretivism values subjectivity and attempt to develop an in-depth subjective understanding of people's lives. Inter-researchers are likely to hang out with people and observe them in their natural settings.
Critical social science
A research paradigm distinguished by its focus on oppression and its commitment to using research procedures to empower oppressed groups.
A research paradigm, like the critical social science paradigm, distinguished by its commitment to using research procedures to address issues of concern to women and to empower women.
Studies that conduct observations at different points in time.
Studies based on observations that represent a single point in time.
Quantitative Research Methods
Emphasizes the production of precise and generalizable statistical findings. Generally used when you want to verify whether a cause produces an effect. These studies typically attempt to formulate all or most of their research procedures in advance, and then try to adhere precisely to those procedures with maximum objectivity as data are collected.
Qualitative Research Methods
More flexible than quantitative methods, because research procedures evolve as more observations are gathered, thus the use of subjectivity generates a deeper understanding of the meaning and richer observations. Begins with a flexible plan. May be more suitable when a study is new and there is little information known regarding the subject.
Mixed Methods Research
A stand-alone research design in which a single study not only collects both qualitative and quantitative data, but also integrates both sources of data at one or more stages of research process so as to improve the understanding of the phenomenon being investigated. There are nine types of mixed methods designs.
Reports comprehensive searches for unpublished and published studies that address a particular research question.
A type of systematic review that pools the statistical results across studies of particular interventions and generates conclusions about which interventions have the strongest impacts on treatment outcome.
Is first relying on results of evidence-based searches that others have done. An advantage to this method is feasibility. A disadvantage is the fallibility of the experts who have conducted the reviews, appraised the evidence, and derived practice guidelines from them. In other words, there is a big reliance on the authority of those experts.
Is searching for literature that provides evidence pertaining to the practice question formulated, then read and critically appraise the quality of the evidence in each source, judge whether it is applicable to the unique practice decision, and ultimately choose a course of action based on what you deem to be the best applicable evidence available. Disadvantages are that this can be time consuming if the search yields a large number of studies.
Duplicating a study to see if the same evidence and conclusions are produced. It also refers to modified replications in which the procedures are changed in certain ways that improve on previous studies, or determine if findings hold up with different target populations or under different circumstances. Replication is used so that all knowledge is tentative and refutable.
Refers to observation-based evidence.
An approach to inquiry that attempts to safeguard against errors commonly made in casual human inquiry. Chief features include viewing all knowledge as provisional and subject to refutation, searching for evidence based on systematic and comprehensive observation, pursuing objectivity in observation, and replicating studies. Tentative Replication Observation Unbiased Transparent
A process in which practitioners consider the best scientific evidence available pertinent to a particular practice decision as an important part of their decision making.
Sources of Information
Tradition, authority, common sense, and popular media.
Flaws in scientific inquiry include:
Inaccurate observation, over-generalization, and selective observation.
Steps in EBP Process:
1. Formulate a question to answer practice needs
2. Search for the evidence
3. Critically appraise the relevant studies you find
4. Determine which evidence based intervention is most appropriate for your particular client(s)
5. Apply the evidence based intervention
6. Evaluation and feedback
Problems in EBP:
• Overly restrictive cookbook approach that denigrates professional expertise and ignores client values and preferences.
• Is merely a cost-cutting tool.
• Is based on studies of clients unlike those typically encountered in everyday social work practice.
• Evidence is in short supply.
• It inappropriately devalues qualitative research and alternative philosophies.
• Therapeutic alliance will be hindered.
• Real-world obstacles prevent implementing evidence-based practice in everyday practice
Research purposes in qualitative and quantitative research is:
To explore, describe, explain, and evaluate.
Trend (Longitudinal Studies)
Studies changes within some population over time)
Cohort (Longitudinal Studies)
Examines more specific subpopulations as they change over time
Panel (Longitudinal Studies)
Examines the same set of people each time
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