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for test on 1/27/12

Austro-Prussian War

(1866) Also known as the Seven Weeks' War
Resulted in a Prussian victory & Austria permanently excluded from German affairs

Ballot Act of 1872

Introduced voting by secret ballot

Otto Von Bismarck

(Germany) His goal was to unite Germany.
He appointed William I as prime minister of Prussia in 1862

General Georges Boulanger

(France) wanted to impose stronger executive authority
Third Republic


The upper house of the German federal parliament whose members are appointed by the various state governments


Meaning "charcoal burners"
The most famous of the secret republican societies seeking to unify Italy in the 1820's

Count Camillo Cavour

(Italy)(1810-1861) prime minister of Sardinia-Piedmont & transformed Italy into a nation-state under a constitutional monarchy - Victor Emmanuel in 1861
Used the Crimean War to gain favor with Napoleon III

Concert of Europe

The Crimean War shattered this

Crimean War

(1853-1856) resulted from the rivalry between the Ottoman Empire & Russia.
Russia was defeated & lost territory.
Shattered the Concert of Europe.
First military war to be covered by war correspondents & photographers

Danish War

(1864) Prussia & Austria defeated Denmarck, which leads to conflict over Schleswig-Holstein

Benjamin Disraeli

(Great Britain) led the conservative ministry in the House of Commons.
Prime minister 2 different times, imperialism

Captain Alfred Dreyfus

(France) found guilty of passing secret information to the German army, however, the evidence against him was flimsy & later was revealed to have been forged

Dreyfus Affair

Involved accusations that Captain Dreyfus had passed military secrets to the German army

Franco-Prussian War

(1870-1871) enabled Bismarck to bring the states of Southern Germany into the confederation. France was defeated & the German empire was proclaimed

German Confederation

A loose federation of 39 states which was established at the Congress of Vienna. They met as a central diet in Frankfurt

Giuseppe Garibaldi

(Italy) along with Mazzini led insurrections in Italy throughout the 1830's-1840's

William Gladstone

(Great Britain) prime minister. Began as a Tory, ended as a liberal. He supported Robert Peel, free trade, repeal of the corn laws, & efficient administration
Prime minister 4 different times

Hatt-I Sharif of Gulhane

(1839) the sultan (Egypt?) issued this decree & it attempted to reorganize the empire's administration & military along European lines. This decree opened the Tanzimat Era of the Ottoman Empire
Extended civic equality to Ottoman subjects regardless of their religion


(1898) the French novelist Emile Zola came to the defense of Dreyfus & attacked the army in this newspaper article

Emperor Francis Joseph

(Habsburg Empire) supported a centralized administration for the Habsburg Empire.
This system was essentially a military & bureaucratic regime dominated by German-speaking Austrians

Land and Freedom Society

A radical society which desired a social revolution in Russia
1) adhered to the principles of Alexander Herzen
2) based on the populism movement
3) compromised of young Russians
4) split into factions with the other being called "The People's Will"


The majority ethnic group in Hungary

Giuseppe Mazzini

(Italy) founded the Young Italy Society whose goal was to drive Austria from Italy & establish an Italian republic

Napoleon III

(France) the end of his regime was at the Battle of Sedan during the Franco-Prussian War

North German Confederation

In 1867, Prussia annexed Hanover, Hesse Kassel, Nassau, & the city of Frankfurt, all of which had supported Austria during the war, & deposed their rulers. Under Prussian leadership, all Germany north of the main river now formed this!

President = King of Prussia
Chancellor = Bismarck

Paris Commune

New municipal government that intended to administer Paris separately from the rest of France

Charles Stewart Parnell

(Ireland) leader of the Irish movement for a just land settlement & for home rule

Populism Movement

(Russia) drawn from ideas of Herzen & other radicals. They sought a social revolution based on the communal life of Russian peasants
The chief radical society was called Land and Freedom


The German parliament which existed in various forms until 1945

Schleswig-Holstein Problem

Gave Bismarck the handle for his policy

Battle of Sedan

(1870) decisive battle of the Franco-Prussian war. Germans prevail. Napoleon III is captured


(Meaning organization) Era of the Ottoman Empire from 1839-1876

Third Republic


1) established in the midst of French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War
2) it's existance was threatened by the Paris Commune
3) established a constitution in 1875 which formally created a republican form of government
4) the Boulanger crises, Panama scandal, & Freyfus Affair were threats to its existance

Treaty of Frankfurt

(1871) officially ended the Franco-Prussian War, but also led directly to the creation of the Paris Commune


The desire by Czechs to establish a triple monarchy so they would be on equal footing with the Hungarians. Both the Magyars & the Germans of Bohemia opposed these effects


Local governments set up in the Russian Empire in 1864

Emile Zola

A French novelist who came to Dreyfus's defense & attacked the army in his newspaper article "J'accuse"
He accused the army of denying Dreyfus due process, fprging evidence, & of being anti-semitic

William Gladstone

He supported:

1) extension of the franchise
2) spread of public education
3) home rule for Ireland
4) merit exams in the civil service & military

Marshal Patrice Macmahon

(france) President of the Third French Republic who was expected to prepare for a monarchist restoration

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